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Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Filipino Presidents

Sergio Osmeña
(1878 – 1961; president 1944-1946); 
4th President of the Philippines
Gentleman President

“What goodness will freedom and independence gives us, if we don’t maintain such independence, and if we don’t provide our citizen with peace, happiness and prosperity?”

        Sergio Osmeña, the Gentleman President, was born in Cebu City on September 9, 1878. His mother, Juana Osmeña, is a smart and loving mother. She is the first teacher of Sergio on catechism. She has been a strong example to Sergio of good values and right conduct most especially humility.
        Sergio first studied in a private school named Primera Letras y Humanidades under the tutelage of Martin Medalle. Afterwards, he also studied at Colegio de Segunda Enseñanza under the governance of Don Miguel Logarta. In 1889, he studied at Seminario Colegio de San Carlos. He continued his studies at the University of Santo Tomas where he first met Manuel L. Quezon. They are both studying as capista or studying without charge on food or bedspace. He is the roommate of Manuel L. Quezon in one room in the university.
         Osmeña took the bar exam on February 20, 1903 and got the percentage grade of 25%. He was appointed as temporary governor of Cebu on April 15, 1904 and Provincial Fiscal on June, 1904. Osmeña ran for election as provincial governor on February 5, 1906. He won and sworn into office on March 5, 1906. As governor, Osmeña was well loved by his town mates. Osmeña is one of the founders of Nacionalista party in Manila in 1907.
Osmeña resigned as governor of Cebu province to run as congressman. He is unanimously voted as representative of the second district of Cebu in Congress. In recognition of his brilliance and skills in the field of lawmaking, he was chosen to be the Speaker of the House of Representatives for nine years. Osmeña was voted as the first vice president of the commonwealth and took the oath of office on November 15, 1935.
           In his last speech in Congress on June 19, 1908, Osmeña said:
“Filipinos just like before, are still passionately desiring to be real free. The desire of a temporary freedom is not a new objective, not a new concept. This desire of the Filipinos is very old and reveals their true sentiments. One real feeling that never ceases, never forgotten by the nation’s children not once despite of poverty and misery they have to endure. This desire of Filipinos has never been blurred. Despite the fact that the Philippines swore allegiance to America does not mean their desire to be free has faded. We trust the loyalty of the United States to allow us that kind of feeling and to desire of one’s freedom for his country.”
          During the World War II, the Commonwealth government evacuated to Washington D.C., United States. President Quezon’s health is now deteriorating. If Vice President Osmeña wanted to takeover, he could’ve easily been the President because of severe illness of President Quezon. However, this tested the gentleman nature of Osmeña. He proves that he is not greedy for duty and honor. He only accepted the position of a president when President Quezon died at Saranac Lake, New York, United States. Osmeña finally became President on August 1, 1944.
           When the Americans land on the Philippines, Gen. Douglas MacArthur handover President Osmeña the full responsibility of heading the government held at Palo Beach, Leyte on October 20, 1944. On February 27, 1945, the Commonwealth government was again established.
           The election of 1946 signifies the end of political career for President Osmeña. In the presidential election, he lost to Manuel A. Roxas.
           President Osmeña is married to Estefania Chiong Veloso of Cebu in 1903. They have ten children namely Vicenta, Nicasio, Jesus, Emilio, Edilberto, Teodoro, Jose, Maria Paloma, Milagros and Sergio. Mrs. Osmeña died on January 18, 1918. President Osmeña remarries and his second wife Esperanza Limjap of San Miguel, Manila bore him three children.
           President Osmeña died on October 19, 1961.

Major World Events During Osmeña’s Administration

Greece. Liberation completed, 1944.
France. Germans surrender to Allies at Reims, 1945.
Japan. Japanese surrender at Tokyo Bay, 1945

President Sergio Osmeña Images

President Osmeña addressing the nation.

In one of the last celebrations held in his honor, President Osmena was captured while enjoying with the guests.

Along with photos of the Honourable Reverend Sergio Osmeña, father, were General Douglas MacArthur and Carlos P. Romulo. This picture was taken at land at Palo Beach, Leyte, Philippines the Americans.

Monday, September 27, 2010

Jose Rizal images

Rizal at 31, Hong Kong

Jose Rizal images

Rizal at 27, Paris

A painting of Rizal by Juan Luna (Paris, 1891)

Painting of Rizal by Juan Luna

Rizal at 25, Berlin

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Filipino Presidents

Jose P. Laurel 
(1891-1959; President 1943-1945) 
3rd President of the Philippines
Patriotic President; Puppet Republic President

“When I took my oath as President, my primary aim is for the citizen’s welfare…And I won’t hesitate to declare war against any other countries, if those actions I made would mean the safety of our countrymen.”

        Jose P. Laurel, the President of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation, is named as the Patriotic President. The trust of Filipinos to President Laurel has been endangered due to wrong beliefs. His enemies thought that his presidency during the Japanese Occupation will make him an ally of the Japanese. But soon, he proved through his service to the country his loyalty and true patriotism to the Philippines.
        The patriotic president was born in Tanauan, Batangas on March 9, 1891. His parents were Sotero Laurel and Jacoba Garcia. Laurel’s father was a former secretary of the interior during the administration of President Aguinaldo.
        Laurel was taught alphabet by his parents. When he reached the right age for formal education, he studied at San Juan de Letran College. Peping is fond of playing guitar and violin. He always missed school just to join and play with the orchestra to which he is a member. He decided to go to Manila in 1908. He studied at Manila High School. So he can earn a meager income, he worked as a chorister. Soon, he worked as an employee of the Bureau of Forestry and he earns 40 cents per day. After studying at Manila High School, Jose served at the office of Justice Thomas Atkins Street. He continued his studies in the College of Law at the University of the Philippines. He also studied Spanish at Escuela de Derecho.
         He finished law in 1915 and passed the bar exam that year. In 1918, Laurel became a government pensioner at Yale University in United States. While studying at Yale University, he studied how to cut his own hair. He bought two mirrors in which one he put at his back, the other at his front. For this, he learned how to cut his own hair and save a lot of money.
         When he returned to the Philippines, Laurel was appointed as the Chief of Executive Bureau. In 1922, Laurel was appointed undersecretary of the Department of Interior under the administration of Governor General Leonard Wood. After 10 months, he became the secretary of the Interior Department. On July 17, 1923, Laurel resigned from his position in the department. He doesn’t like the interfering of Governor Wood even in the smallest matters in the department. Instead, he established his own law office with del Rosario and Lualhati of Manila.
          Laurel was elected senator in 1925. He was also a delegate to the Constitution Convention that created the 1935 Constitution. He was appointed by President Quezon to the Supreme Court in 1935. He remained in that position until he was appointed as secretary of the Department of Justice by President Quezon.
         When the Japanese occupied Manila, some of the Filipino officials including President Quezon escaped to America. But Laurel stayed in the Philippines and took responsibilities of the welfare of the Filipinos. He refused to swear allegiance to Japan. Laurel did all he could to avert the unjust arrest of the Filipinos by the Japanese. But usually he failed to stop the cruelty of the Japanese. When Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas o ang KALIBAPI (Organization of Service to the New Philippines) was established, Laurel was appointed Commissioner of the Interior. The responsibility of keeping the peace was vested on him however severe cruelties were done by the Japanese police to Filipinos. Laurel advised the provincial chief to cooperate with the Japanese to avoid harsh treatment to the Filipinos. With this manner, Laurel was thought to be a Filipino siding with Japan.
         Because of what he did, someone plan to assassinate him. While playing golf at Wack Wack Golf and Country Club in Mandaluyong ( a part of the Rizal province at that time) on July 5, 1943, he was treacherously shot. Throughout his time of confinement at the hospital, he never waivered his faith in God. On July 16, 1943, Emperor Hideki Tojo of Japan convinced the Filipinos that he will set free the Philippines in a year. In accordance with the law that was adopted by KALIBAPI, Laurel unanimously elected as President of the Republic of the Philippines under the Japanese regime on September 25, 1943. He swore as President on October 13, 1943 in front of many people in the front lawn of the Congress building. General Emilio Aguinaldo raised the Philippine flag. Filipinos realized the betrayal of Japan when the Americans tried to invade the Philippines. Japan forced the Philippines to declare war against the United States, Burundi & Great Britain. President Laurel cannot do anything because he has no choice. The only thing he asked is not to get any Filipinos to bear arms and fight as soldiers. When peace finally returns, Laurel was accused of making alliance with Japan during the war. He asserts that he is not pro-Japanese nor pro-American but pro-Filipino. The truth is, during the dangerous years of occupation, President Laurel tried to lessen the cruelty of the Japanese soldiers.
          The court hearing for President Laurel was discontinued because on January 27, 1948, President Roxas declared the revocations as significant all the accusations considered as crimes during the Japanese occupation. In a speech with a regrettable tone, President Laurel said:
        “Look at the Filipinos who despite being educated doesn’t learn anything or maleducated, who earned distinction and title but without honor and character, modern youth but with undesirable traits, Filipinos who are ashamed of the honorable values of our nation since birth, Filipinos who measures everything with foreign standards and doesn’t consider desirable things other than foreign objects.”
            Laurel is the candidate of the Nacionalista party in the presidential election of 1949 but he lost to Elpidio Quirino.
President Laurel’s other half is Paciencia Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas. They have nine children namely Jose Bayani, Jose Sotero, Natividad, Sotero, Nita, Mariano, Rosenda, Salvador and Arsenio. President Laurel died on November 6, 1959 in Manila.

Major World Events During Laurel’s Administration

France. United States Marines invade Bougainville, 1943
Iran. Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin open Tehran conference; agree on final plans to defeat Germany, 1943
Italy. King Victor Emmanuel of Italy transfers royal power to his son, Humbert, 1944
United States. Dumbarton Oaks Conference opens in Washington D.C. , 1944
United States. Fifty nations sign charter of United Nations at San Francisco, 1945

Saturday, September 25, 2010

District of Alimodian and Alimodian Central Elementary School Administrators

District Supervisors

1. Mr. Gorgonio Pedrajas
2. Mr. Rafael Hingco
3. Mr. Juan Chaves
4. Mr. Celso Girado - 1952
5. Mr. Dominador Gregorio
6. Mr. Alfredo Villalobos
7. Mr. Glicerio Vargas
8. Miss Remedios Anam
9. Mr. Manuel Adricula – 1980 – 1981
10. Mr. Cristino Figuracion – 1983
11. Mr. Jose Torre – 1988
12. Mrs. Valme Fernandez – 1990
13. Mr. Jesus Latumbo – 1991
14. Mr. Santiago de los Reyes – 1992- 1993
15. Mrs. Julista Polido – 1996
16. Mr. Claudio Libutaque – 1997
17. Dr. Segundina Nieves – 2001 – 2003
18. Dr. Napoleon Allones – 2003 – 2006
19. Mr. Benson Cagayao
20. Marilyn Aquidado


1. Mr. Manuel Jimeno – 1919 – 1927
2. Ms. Soledad Torre
3. Ms. Alarcon
4. Mrs. Maria Gotera
5. Mr. Alfredo Bajas
6. Mr. Esperidion Alderete
7. Miss Remedios Anam
8. Mr. Manuel Adricula
9. Mr. Cornelio Canaryo
10. Mr. Joaquin Tacdoro
11. Mr. Ricardo Alzate – 1982
12. Mrs. Letecia Fama
13. Dr. Sixto Canarejo
14. Dr. Victoria Calumpita – 1991
15. Dr. Napoleon Allones – 1991 – 1998
16. Mr. Serafin Provido – 2001 – 2003
17. Mr. Benson Cagayao – 2005 – 2010
18. Mrs. Marilyn Aquidado - 2007 - 2011
19. Mr. Noel Barrientos - 2011 - present

Friday, September 24, 2010

Filipino Presidents

Manuel L. Quezon
2nd President of the Philippines
(1878 – 1944; President 1935 – 1944)
First President of the Commonwealth

“The ones who are worthy to be free are those who are smart and ready to suffer, those who were designated to fight for the said freedom even if it will cause him death.”

         Manuel L. Quezon, the first Commonwealth President, was born on August 19, 1878 in the town of Baler in the province formerly called Tayabas (now called Quezon in honor of the first Commonwealth president). His parents were Lucio Quezon and Maria Dolores Molina.
         Manuel was raised by a priest, the parish priest of Baler – Fr. Teodoro Fernandez. Father Teodoro Fernandez taught Manuel religion, geography, history and Latin. When Father Fernandez went to Manila, he brought Manuel with him. While in Manila, Manuel worked as a messenger and kitchen helper, while studying at San Juan de Letran College. They were poor but Manuel dreamed of finishing his studies. He came to know Fr. Tamayo of the University of the Philippines. He show fondness to Manuel and allowed him to study at the university for free. As payment, he served at the university. Throughout his time studying in Manila, Manuel continues to serve in the university. His father is already happy with this fate of Manuel. When his father pays him a last visit, Manuel can’t forget his last advice. “Son” said his father, “I’m going home in two hours. I won’t say a lot. Just always remember no matter how far you will go in life, do not forget that you came from a poor clan and that you belong to the poor. Do not forsake poverty. May God bless you! That was the last conversation of the father and son and never went to see each other again. During the revolution Quezon joined Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo’s troop. However, when he learned that Gen. Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans, he decided to find a job instead. He was fortunate to land a job in a Manila bank named Monte de Piedad. He was able to pursue his studies until he became a fully fledged lawyer.
          Quezon first serve the government in 1904. He was appointed as fiscal of Mindoro with a salary of one thousand one hundred pesos (P1, 800) a year. After six months, he was transferred to his native home province and served as a legal counsel of the poor and the oppressed. Quezon was elected as governor of Tayabas province in 1905. His main objective is to prove that the Philippines is capable of being an independent sovereign country. He let officials and leaders of every town and cities freely perform their duties in their respective jurisdiction.
         After two years, Quezon was elected to Philippine Assembly. At the end of the assembly in Congress, Quezon left the country. He visited Japan, Berlin, London, and United States. He became a frequent Philippine Resident Commissioner in United States. He began living in America on December 24, 1909. Upon his stay in United States, Quezon always reiterated his wish of freeing the Filipinos. In one of his speech, he told this to the listening Americans.
         “If I had to choose for the fate of my country, I would choose to be miserable but free than rich but under the rule of another country.”
         Quezon wanted through a law imposing the freedom of the Philippines or a law that America will promise to allow the Filipinos to rule and govern an independent government in the Philippines.This results to the creation of the Jones Law. The Jones Law imposes the freeing of the Philippines once Filipinos can have a formidable government. After the successful Jones Law, Quezon resigned as a commissioner to United States. He return to the Philippines and ran for the senatorial race. He won and became the Senate president on October 16, 1916. As the first president of the Commonwealth, he was sworn into office on November 15, 1935. The important legacy of President Quezon for the Philippines is his Code of Citizenship.

1. Trust God who assigned the fate of countries and its people.
2. Love your country because this is your home, a shelter of your love, source of your happiness and manly nature.
3. Respect the Constitution that declares your powerful will. It was created for your security and for your own good. Obey the law and try to implement it for the citizens and government officials.
4. Pay your taxes voluntarily and wholeheartedly on time. Remember citizenship possesses not only rights but requires responsibility and accountability.
5. Maintain a peaceful, honest and orderly election and follow the consensus.
6. Love and respect your parents. It is your duty to serve them well and be grateful.
7. Give worth to your honor as you value your life. A decent respectable humble living is more important than wealthy without honor.
8. Be honest in thoughts, and in actions. Be just, benevolent but honorable in dealing.
9. Have a frugal but orderly living. Don’t be lavish or pretentious. Be simple in dressing up and modest in your ways.
10. Be worthy of the honorable civilization of the nation. Respect the memories of our heroes. They live and die in an honorable fulfillment of duty.
11. Be hardworking. Don’t be ashamed of hard sweating for a job. Hard work is the road to a convenient living and adds wealth to our nation.
12. Be dependent on your ability to progress and happiness. Don’t lose hope immediately. Be patient for the success of your goals.
13. Perform wholeheartedly your duties. The job barely done is much worse than a job not yet started. Don’t wait for tomorrow what you can do now.
14. Contribute and help for the progress of the community and social justice. No man lives on his own, with his family alone. You are a part of a society which you owe responsibility and accountability.
15. Make it a habit of patronizing our local products.
16. Utilize and put to good use our natural resources. These are our wealth that cannot be separated from us. Don’t sell your citizenship.

        Aurora Aragon became his wife and it bore him four children namely Maria Aurora, Maria Zenaida, Luisa Corazon Paz and Manuel. President Quezon’s love for his country is incomparable but his love of his family is also admirable. President Quezon once wrote a letter to his wife and it says
         “I am saddened by the fact that I don’t spend much of my life to you and our children, especially you are the one who gave me enough strength to perform my duty to our motherland. Forgive me for my shortcomings. My love for you has never changed and will never be. My heart and my life are reserved for you. Your goodness will be unequalled as your spouse. You are the source of my happiness. At this moment, you must believe what I say because all of it came from the depths of my soul. Pray for me, my children pray for me. I am kissing you and calling God for all of us. If this is the end, I will wait for you in the serenity of heaven. I will not forget to guide you and through the intercession of the Almighty God, will save you from all evil.
          Manuel L. Quezon died of tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York on August 1, 1944.

Major World Events During Quezon’s Administration

Great Britain. Edward VIII abdicates; George VI is king, 1936
Germany attacks Poland, starts World War II, 1939
France. Occupied by Germany in World War II, 1940 – 44
Spain. Civil War, 1936-39
Italy. Mussolini seizes Ethiopia, 1936
Soviet Union signs non aggression pact with Germany, 1939

Manuel L. Quezon Images

The house as the witness rising of the birth of President Quezon in Baler, Tayabas on August 19, 1878.

The President Manuel L. Quezon in his attire as Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines

President Manuel L. Quezon

Pictures taken while confirming the Constitution of the Philippines. President Quezon was seen watching as the President of United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs the Constitution.

Manuel L. Quezon Images

In celebration of Day of Planting Rice, President Quezon lead as an example to give "honor to work "

A beautiful picture of President and First Lady Manuel L. Quezon after they were married in Hong Kong.

President Quezon holding one of his four children

The entire family of President Quezon, his wife and four children, in the presence of the well-wishers on his birthday in 1942.

A rare picture of a sick, joined by his carer: the President Quezon and his wife who is a nurse

Thursday, September 23, 2010

St. Thomas of Villanova

      St. Thomas of Villanova, O.S.A. (born Tomás García Martínez, Ciudad Real, 1488 - died Valencia, September 8, 1555), was a preacher, ascetic, writer and Spanish friar of the Order of Saint Augustine.
      Thomas grew up and was educated in Villanueva de los Infantes, in the province of Ciudad Real, Spain, where his parents owned a prosperous estate; therefore the name Thomas of Villanueva. Part of the original house still stands, with a coat of arms in the corner, beside a family chapel. In spite of his family's wealth, as a young boy he often went about naked because he had given his clothing to the poor.
      Even though he studied Arts and Theology at the University of Alcalá de Henares and became a professor there, he decided to enter the Augustinian order in Salamanca in 1516, and in 1518 was ordained a priest. Within the order, he held the positions of prior of the friary, General Visitor, and Provincial Prior for Andalusia and Castile. He was also a professor at the university and counsellor and confessor to the Spanish King and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
      He was well known for his great personal austerity (he sold the straw mattress on which he slept in order to give money to the poor) and for his continual and untiring charitable efforts, especially towards orphans, poor women without a dowry, and the sick. He possessed, however, an intelligent notion of charity, so that while he was very charitable, he sought to obtain definitive and structural solutions to the problem of poverty; for example, giving work to the poor, thereby making his charity bear fruit. "Charity is not just giving, rather removing the need of those who receive charity and liberating them from it when possible," he wrote.
      In 1533, he sent out the first Augustinian friars to arrive in Mexico. He began to experience mystical ecstasies during Mass and when reading the psalms. Charles V offered him the post of Archbishop of Granada but he would not accept it. In 1544 he was nominated as Archbishop of Valencia but he continued to refuse the position until ordered to accept by his superior. There, aided by his assistant bishop, Juan Segriá, he put in order a diocese that for a century had not had direct pastoral government. He organized a special college for Moorish converts, and in particular an effective plan for social assistance, welfare, and charity.
     He composed beautiful sermons, among which stands out the Sermon on the Love of God, one of the great examples of sacred oratory of the 16th century. He enjoyed great fame as a preacher, with a plain and simple style. Charles V, upon hearing him preach, exclaimed, "This monsignor can move even the stones!", and he brought about public conversions. Some of his sermons attacked the cruelty of bullfighting. He also had a great devotion to the Virgin Mary, whose heart he compared to the burning bush that is never consumed. In 1547 he ordained as a priest the future Saint Luis Beltrán. He died in 1555 of angina at the age of 67. He was canonized by Pope Alexander VII on November 1, 1658. His liturgical feast day is celebrated on September 22.
      He is the author of various Tracts, among which is included the Soliloquy between God and the soul, on the topic of communion. Francisco de Quevedo wrote his biography. His complete writings were published in six volumes as Opera omnia, in Manila in 1881.
      He is the namesake and patron saint of Villanova University, near Philadelphia (USA), which was founded and is administered by the friars of his order, Universidad Católica de Santo Tomás de Villanueva in Havana (Cuba), St. Thomas University in Miami Gardens, Florida, (USA)and Villanova College, a catholic school for boys located in Brisbane, Australia.

Source: Wikipedia

Alimodian Town Fiesta 2010

St. Thomas of Villanova

       Yesterday September 22, 2010, Alimodian celebrated its annual patronal town fiesta in honor of our patron saint, St. Thomas of Villanova. We prepare a feast for the guests and visitor to rekindle ties and forge bond that was formed a long time ago and to reunite with kin and clans. It is also a time to rest or a comic relief from the usual daily routine to enjoy the festivities. The theme this year is “Climate Change: An Environmental Concern and a Social Responsibility Of All Alimodiananons” which emphasizes on the dire warning and repercussion brought by global warming and the citizen of Alimodian’s role to make a difference and help alleviate this cruel vengeance of nature.
       This is the story of our patron saint, St. Thomas of Villanova which we honor in this religious fiesta.

      Bishop Confessor (1488 – 1555) St. Thomas of Villanova is best remembered as the “Almgiver” and the “Father of the Poor”.
      Thomas was born in 1488 to Alfonso Thomas Garcia and Lucia Martinez Castillanos in Fuentellano but he grew up in Villanova de los Infantes.
      In 1504, he entered the University of Alcala and finished Master of Arts degree and Licentiate in Theology and taught Philosophy. He joined the Augustinian order in 1516 and was ordained priest in 1518. He taught theology in the University of Salamanca which is known worldwide up to the present. He became of the famous preachers of Valencia and Valladolid. High positions in the Augustinian order were handled by him.
      In his order, St. Thomas of Villanova rose to Provincial and from Castille sent out the first band of Augustinian missionaries to Mexico. Then he was nominated to the position of bishop of Granada but refused such nomination. Nevertheless, under obedience he accepted the position of Archbishop of Valencia and which he has served from 1545 to September 8, 1555. Here he labored at reforming the mortals of both clergy and laymen; he did away with underground prisons: a money gift which he received from the cathedral chapter for use in his place was used for the rebuilding of fire guttered general hospital. Moreover, he founded a college for young clergy and another for poor students. Children of indigent parents and foundlings were likewise provided for in an orphanage. For the benefit of the working people, masses were said at very early hours.
     Many miracles have been credited to him before and after his death. It was Cardinal Pardo of Toledo who ordained him; Pope Paul II whom beatified him in 1618 and Pope Alejandro VII who canonized him as Saint in 1658.
     Thomas of Fuentellano is more popularly known as Thomas of Villanova. Yes, he is a humble servant and an obedient follower as well. His life was one of the continuous series of self-sacrifice and charitable acts, healing the sick and converting hardened sinners.
     Thomas Castillanos Garcia is Thomas of Villanova.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Jose P. Rizal Images

Rizal posed as an Egyptian priest for a group painting by Juan Luna.

Rizal posing as a novice who fell asleep during a funeral vigil for a group painting by Juan Luna.

A picture of Rizal from a group picture taken in Juan Luna's studio.

A picture of Rizal from a group picture taken in Juan Luna's studio.

A picture of Rizal from a group picture taken in Juan Luna's studio.

Jose P. Rizal Images

Painting of Rizal by Felix Resurrecion Hidalgo (Madrid,1883)

Rizal at 23, Madrid

Rizal wearing a costume during the carnival season in Spain.

Rizal wearing a costume during the carnival season in Spain.

Rizal wearing a costume during the carnival season in Spain.

Sunday, September 12, 2010

Filipino Presidents

Emilio Aguinaldo
(1869-1964; President 1898-1901)
First President of the First Republic of the Philippines

“We may be losing our hope to succeed in the present battle because of lack of warfare manpower, however what we cannot lose is our hope to die for the sake of freedom.”

      Emilio Aguinaldo, the first President of the First Republic was born in Kawit, Cavite on March 22, 1869. His father is Carlos Aguinaldo and his mother is Trinidad Famy y Valero.
Emilio was nicknamed Miong. At age three, he almost died because he became ill of smallpox and his parents were afraid of his condition.
      Miong’s first teacher was his aunt Sotera. He first attended school at the National School in Kawit, and his first teacher is Felipe Canda of Baliuag, Bulacan. Miong is a bright student and likes to study which makes his teacher fond of him.
      He continued his studies at San Juan de Letran College. After three months, he went home and quit his studies. Upon his return to his hometown, he was appointed as Cabesa de Barangay or Village Chieftain and it wasn’t long because of his great leadership skill, that he was invited by a friend, Santiago Alvarez to join Katipunan. The Katipunan is a secret organization of Filipinos who were against the grave abuse of power of the Spanish government in the Philippines. This organization also started the revolution against the Spanish. The Katipuneros, including Emilio Aguinaldo revolted against the Spaniards in 1896. Because of his bravery and valor, he led the revolt and he became the President in Tejeros convention because of a conspiracy and his persuasion of the officials and leaders to vote for him instead of Bonifacio because Aguinaldo said that Bonifacio has no formal education, illiterate and poor.
        In the said convention, Emilio Aguinaldo have said: “My Filipino countrymen, open your eyes. Let the blood of our fellow Filipino that was oppressed by the Spanish lingers in your hearts so that we may not surrender to the Spaniards. We haven’t committed any wrongdoings to not obtain freedom.”
       Aguinaldo ordered the execution of his biggest rival, Bonifacio brothers, Andres and Procopio at Mt. Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite on May 10, 1897.
       After the pact in Biak-na-Bato, the Filipinos and the Spanish agreed to halt the war. The treaty were to obliged the Spanish government to forgive the Filipino revolutionist. It is also obligatory for the Spanish to pay in the amount of one million, seven hundred thousand pesos (P1,700,000) for te damaged properties during the revolution.
        Emilio Aguinaldo and other Filipino leaders escaped to Hong Kong. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo deposited one million, seven hundred thousand pesos, paid by the Spanish government to the Filipinos, in Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank on January 2, 1898. However, the Spanish betrayed and followed the treaties in Biak na Bato (Halved Stones). Filipinos too advantage of the Spanish-American War in Cuba. They have decided to return to the Philippines and continue the movement for freedom. Gen. Aguinaldo made connections with the Americans. He had entrusted to the American consulate in Hong Kong, the amount used to purchase arms and weapons. However, Gen. Aguinaldo was deceived again. No help came from the Americans.
        Upon Gen. Aguinaldo’s return to the Philippines on May, 1898, a battle between the Filipinos and the Spanish erupted. Aguinaldo successfully declared the Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, Cavite. On this occasion, as the First President of First Republic, Emilio Aguinaldo uttered:
        “We are free now. We don’t just obey. We are people who recognize the law, make friends and respect other countries. We have enough abilities to be independent and to be fee.” I am congratulating all the Filipinos. From now on, we already have our own rights to freedom to be known as the “Republic of the Philippines.”
         President Aguinaldo appointed Felipe Agoncillo to be the Philippine representative in United States. Agoncillo tried to talk with President McKinley but he failed. The Americans ignored the desire of the Filipinos to recognize the Philippines as a free country. Instead, on December 10, 1898, in the Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States, the Philippines was ceded to the United States by Spain in the amount of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000).
          The Filipinos started killing Americans in the Philippines. The Americans thought that in the amount they gave to Spain, they will capture the hearts and minds of the Filipinos. Aguinaldo tries to stop the war. Due to lack of skill and power, Filipinos were easily defeated by the Americans. During the battle of Tirad Pass in Ilocos Norte province on December 1899, Gen. Aguinaldo narrowly escapes the tragic battle of the Filipinos against Americans by heeding the warning of one of his troops not to come to the losing battle.
            Finally, Aguinaldo captured by the Americans on March 23, 1901 in Palanan, Isabela. He was made to swear allegiance to America on April 1, 1901.
           In 1935, President Aguinaldo run for election as President of a Commonwealth government. His opponents include Manuel L. Quezon and Gregorio Aglipay. Aguinaldo was easily defeated and the presidency was won by Manuel L. Quezon.
          When the Japanese occupied Philippines in 1941, Aguinaldo doesn’t have enough strength to lead. Through radio transmitter, he made announcements to Gen. Douglas MacArthur on February 6, 1942 to surrender the Philippines to Japan to avoid the increase in casualties of Filipinos and damage of properties. President Aguinaldo is one of the signatories of the Constitution of the Republic under Japan.
          Aguinaldo’s first wife is Hilaria del Rosario with which he has five children namely Miguel, Carmen, Maria, Emilio and Cristina. Nine years after his wife’s death, President Aguinaldo remarried and his second wife is Maria Agoncillo. President Emilio Aguinaldo died on February 6, 1964.

Major World Events During Aguinaldo’s Administration

Netherlands. First Hague Peace Conference, 1899
China. Boxer uprising against foreign domination, 1900
Australia. Commonwealth of Australia established, 1901
South Africa. Boer War 1899 – 1902

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