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Thursday, June 30, 2016

Tenyente Gimo

In the gossips and rumors that Tenyente or Lieutenant Gimo is the “gabonan” or the leader of the aswang in the area, is a bare naked lie. Teniente Gimo is not an aswang. He is just a victim of some instances just like the narration in the following stories. 

In 1882, during the incumbency of municipal captain Fabiano Ortiz a terrifying great famine occurred. The dead bodies of the people were just picked up anywhere in town because of starvation. During these times, only Gimo has a good produce of corn (maize). Gimo is too thrifty and has no plan of sharing and giving away his corns without any equivalent payment. Gimo’s corn farm is thick and plenty and came the harvest. Gimo won’t allow the people to benefit from it and because of it, people think of ways to get his corns. They hid a nine-year old kid under the bundle of cornstalks. Darkness falls but the child did not return home. The parents asked for help. That night, they altogether searched for the child. The child was found under the bundle of corn bushels of Gimo’s farm. The rumors had spread that Gimo hid the child and Gimo is an aswang. Gimo disliked this because this will stain his reputation and honor. To stop the rumors that he is an aswang, he told the starving people to stop spreading the words that he is an aswang, and he is ready to give to everyone the corns in his farm fields. The hungry people are relieved and obtained a lot of reserved corns for many days.

However, even if Gimo had given all of his corns to save his reputation, the news had spread enough to extinguish it.  The name Gimo as an aswang was known for more several years.

To scare people of calling Gimo aswang, he was made a tenyente / teniente or lieutenant. After that, he was appointed as tenyente mayor or lieutenant major or second captain. The people discreetly talk about it whispering already that instead of Gimo only, it became Tenyente Gimo as an aswang.

Gimo was said to have a proprietary. People who belongs to the upper class and are well educated will never ever believe that Gimo is an aswang.

Photo Source:

Teniente Gimo ( Ang Aswang Man ay May Hugot Din) Official Youtube Trailer -

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Philippine Presidential Inaugurations Quick Facts

June 30, 2016 is the 16th Presidential Inauguration and Oath Taking of President Rodrigo Roa Duterte as well as the 14th Vice-Presidential Inauguration and Oath Taking of Vice-President Maria Leonor Gerona Robredo.

Here are some quick facts about Philippine Presidential Inauguration:


   * This is the first time a president-elect and vice president-elect will be sworn into office separately.
   * There has been one inauguration held in front of the Rizal Monument: 1946, July. This was the Roxas inauguration; he re-took his oath as part of independence ceremonies.
   * Only one president delivered his inaugural address on a day other than the day of his swearing in: Osmeña delivered his inaugural address before the Cabinet on August 10, 1944; he was sworn in on August 1, 1944.
   * Only one president took his oath in Spanish: Emilio Aguinaldo in 1899.


   * Inaugurals held in Rizal Ceremonial Hall
         - Marcos in 1986 and Duterte in 2016; three decades apart.
   * Inaugurals held in Malolos
         - Aguinaldo in 1899 and Estrada in 1998.
   * Inaugural addresses delivered at the Quirino the Grandstand, while the swearing-in took place elsewhere
         - Estrada in 1998, after being sworn in at Malolos, Arroyo in 2004, before being sworn in at Cebu City.
    * Times the president took the oath of office abroad: Quezon in November 1943, when the government-in-exile was extended by congressional resolution; Sergio Osmeña in August 1944, when he succeeded to the presidency of the government-in-exile.
    * Presidents who took their oath on two bibles
        - Magsaysay and Marcos took their oath on two bibles each, in 1953 and 1965. Magsaysay’s came from his mother’s and father’s families; Marcos’ were from his father and the other, a gift of his wife.


    * Inaugurals held in front of the Legislative Building (now National Museum)
        - 1935 (Quezon), 1943 (Laurel), 1946 (Roxas, in May)
    * Presidents who attended the inaugural of their duly-elected successor:
        - Osmeña (1946, the first handover of power from one administration to its elected successor); C. Aquino (1992, to signify the completion of the restoration of the democratic process); Ramos (1998 as part of the Centennial celebrations)
     Rodrigo Roa Duterte will be the third president to be sworn in by a Filipino associate justice of the Supreme Court.


    * Number of presidents who took their oaths either on June 30 or December 30
    * Times presidents have been sworn in at the Palace: 1948 (Quirino, after Roxas died), 1957 (Garcia, after Magsaysay died), 1986 (Marcos, after Snap Election), 2016 (Duterte)
    * Most number of inaugural addresses: Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981, 1986). Second-most is Quezon (1935, 1941, 1943); Quirino (1948 and 1949), Garcia (March and December, 1957), Arroyo (2001 and 2004) each delivered two inaugural addresses each.
    * Four vice presidents who succeeded to the presidency also took their oaths on dates different from the traditional inaugural date: Osmeña (August 1, 1944); Quirino (April 17, 1948), Garcia (March 18, 1957), Arroyo (January, 2001).
    * Most number of times a president has taken the oath of office: four, for Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981 and 1986);  followed by three, for Quezon (1935 in Manila, 1941 in Corregidor, 1943 in Washington, D.C., also before three different individuals); Quirino (1948 in Malacañan Palace, 1949 at the Independence Grandstand); Garcia (1957, twice: upon succession in March in Malacañan Palace and in December at the Independence Grandstand); Arroyo (2001 in Quezon City, 2004 in Cebu).


    * Republics (1899, 1943, 1946, 1981 and 1987) and 1 Commonwealth (1935)
    Presidents who did not attend the inaugural of their duly-elected successor
        The tradition of the outgoing chief executive departing from the inaugural of his or her successor after the ride together from Malacañan Palace to the inaugural venue, began with President Quirino and continued for the premartial law era; it was restored in 2010. Thus: Quirino (1953), Garcia (1961), Macapagal (1965), Arroyo (2010), B. Aquino III (2016: If the 2010 practice is observed)
    * Rodrigo Roa Duterte will be the fifth president not sworn in by a chief justice (Quezon in 1943, Osmeña in 1944, C. Aquino in 1986, B. Aquino III in 2010, and Rodrigo Roa Duterte in 2016.
    * Laurel, Marcos, Ramos, Estrada, B. Aquino III took their oath in Tagalog/Filipino.


    * Inaugurals held outside Manila
        - 1899 Aguinaldo (Malolos); 1941 Quezon (Corregidor); 1986 C. Aquino (San Juan), 1998 Estrada (Malolos), 2001 Arroyo (EDSA Shrine), 2004 Arroyo (Cebu)
    * Times a Chief Justice has not administered oath of office
        - 1899 (Aguinaldo: oath administered by Speaker), 1943 (Quezon, administered by U.S. Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter), 1944 (administered by U.S. Associate Justice Hugo Jackson) 1986 (administered by Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee), 2010 (administered by Associate Justice Conchita Carpio-Morales), 2016 (administered by Associate Justice Bienvenido Reyes)
    * Presidents inaugurated on December 30
        - Six presidents (Quezon (1941), Quirino (1949), Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965 and 1969) had inaugurals on December 30. Starting with Quezon’s second inaugural in 1941 until Marcos’ second inaugural in 1969 (with the exception of the special election called in 1946), presidents were inaugurated on Rizal Day, December 30. President Marcos in 1981 began the practice of inaugurals on June 30.
    * Rodrigo Roa Duterte will be the sixth president to take his oath of office on June 30: Marcos, Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, B. Aquino III being the others.


    * The number of presidents-elect who fetched their predecessors from Malacañan Palace for the drive to the inaugural venue (Roxas and Osmeña in 1946; Magsaysay and Quirino in 1953; Macapagal and Garcia in 1961; Marcos and Macapagal in 1965; Ramos and C. Aquino in 1992; Estrada and Ramos in 1998; B. Aquino III and Arroyo in 2010).


    * Shortest inaugural address at a regular inaugural
        - Eight (8) minutes is the shortest delivery length of an inaugural address at a regular inaugural. This was delivered by President Ramon Magsaysay in 1953. The addresses of Quirino and Garcia upon the death of their predecessors, and C. Aquino’s address in 1986 were very brief but not regular inaugurals.
    * Presidents elected to a six-year term
        - Quezon, C. Aquino, Marcos (1981), Estrada, Arroyo, Ramos, B. Aquino III, Duterte
    * Decades since first ceremonial climbing of the stars at Malacañan Palace
        - It has been 81 years, to be exact, since the first ceremonial climbing of the stairs at Malacañan Palace–signifying that the chief executive was the freely-elected head of the Filipino people, one pledged to govern them with justice in contrast to the appointed colonial governors who formerly inhabited the Palace.
    * Number who did not swear on a bible
        - Aguinaldo (1899), Quezon (1935, 1941, 1943), Laurel (1943), Osmeña (1944), Roxas (May and July, 1946), Quirino [1949: But in the swearing-in after their predecessors died, Quirino (April 1948) and Garcia (March 1957) did not use a bible, either], and Marcos (1986).


    * Inaugurals at Quirino Grandstand (formerly known as Independence Grandstand)
       - 1949 (Quirino), 1953 (Magsaysay), 1957 (Garcia), 1961 (Macapagal) , 1965, 1969, 1981 (Marcos), 1992 (Ramos), 2010 (B. Aquino III)
    * Number of Presidents who swore on a bible
        - Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981 but not in 1986), C. Aquino (1986), Ramos (1992), Estrada (1998), Arroyo (2001, 2004), B. Aquino III (2010: the same bible used by his mother in 1986).


    * Rodrigo Roa Durterte is the tenth to have been proclaimed president-elect by the legislature: the first was Manuel L. Quezon, followed by Manuel Roxas, Ramon Magsaysay, Diosdado Macapagal, Ferdinand E. Marcos, Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Benigno S. Aquino III. While Congress certified the election of Elpidio Quirino and Carlos P. Garcia, they had succeeded into office previously, and were already serving as president when elected to a full term: thus, were not referred to as presidents-elect. Aguinaldo and Laurel were not elected president in a national election, they were made president by a vote of the national assembly and thus never president-elect. Corazon Aquino assumed the presidency by means of the People Power Revolution and was not proclaimed by the Batasan Pambansa.
    * Rodrigo Roa Duterte, if he takes his oath on a bible, will be the tenth president to swear on a bible. Magsaysay was the first to take his oath on a bible: Garcia, Macapagal, Marcos, C. Aquino, Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, B. Aquino III, followed suit. Aguinaldo, Quezon, Laurel, Osmeña, Roxas and Quirino (belonging to generations closer to the revolutionary era, did not take their oaths on a bible). Magsaysay and Marcos took their oath on two bibles each in 1953 and 1965.
    * Presidents who took their oath of office in English: Quezon, Osmeña, Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal, Aquino, and Arroyo took their oath in English. Rodrigo Roa Duterte is also expected to take his oath in English.


    * Number of Presidents who were sworn in by a Chief of Justice
         - Quezon (1935 and 1941), Laurel (1943), Roxas (1946, May and July), Quirino (1948 and 1949), Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957 March and December), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981 and 1986), Ramos (1992), Estrada (1998), Arroyo (2001 and 2004)
    * Number of Presidents inaugurated in Manila
        - Quezon (1935), Laurel (1943), Roxas (1946), Quirino (1949), Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965), etc.), Ramos (1992), Aquino (2010), Duterte (2016)


    * Time of day the President-elect takes his oath as President
        - The President-elect takes his oath as President at 12:00 p.m. on the 30th day of June. Ideally, as per tradition, the incumbent would already be at home by the time the oath is taken to mark his reverting to being an ordinary citizen.
    * Presidents who undertook the ritual climbing of the stairs of Malacañan Palace: Quezon, Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal, Marcos, Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, B. Aquino III. Rodrigo Roa Duterte is also expected to undertake this ritual. Four did not: Aguinaldo (no such ritual, and his inaugural was not in Manila) Laurel (to avoid comparisons to the Commonwealth), Osmeña (succeeded into office overseas), C. Aquino (assumed office under revolutionary circumstances).


    * Administrations have followed the model of inaugural established in 1935. Exceptions would be Aguinaldo (before the model was introduced).
    * Robredo is 14th Vice President because neither Aguinaldo nor Laurel had a vice presidency under their constitution.


    * The final official act of the 15th Congress was when the Senate President read the proclamation announcing the results of the 2010 elections, a practice last previously undertaken in 1969.


    * Duterte is 16th president because we count the administrations as starting with Aguinaldo in 1899 and including the Commonwealth and the 2nd Republic.


    * Number of times a Chief Justice has administered the presidential oath of office
        1935, 1941, 1943, 1946 (twice, in May and July), 1948, 1949, 1953, 1957 (twice, March and December), 1961, 1965, 1981, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2004

To view the photos of the past Philippine Presidential Inaugurations, check out the link below:

Information Taken From:

Philippine Presidential Museum and Library -

Photo Source:

The Quadrate Wordpress Blog - 

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Presidency and Vice-Presidency By The Numbers: Rodrigo Roa Duterte and Maria Leonor Gerona Robredo

Here's are the things you need to know about our upcoming 16th President and 14th Vice-President of the Philippines.

President Rodrigo "Digong" Duterte

From the time Congress proclaims a candidate as the duly-elected president, the candidate becomes known as the President-elect.

The Constitution is clear and specific: the title of the chief executive is “President of the Philippines,” and takes his oath of office as such, although in certain cases involving formal diplomatic usage, “President of the Republic of the Philippines” is used for diplomatic documents. The honorific for the President of the Philippines is “His/Your Excellency,” but the proper form of address is “Mr. President.”

Duterte’s winning margin was at 38.6% as of May 13, 2016. He was the sixth to win by plurality in presidential history since the restoration of democracy, and under the 1987 Constitution.  The biggest first-term landslide was Magsaysay in 1953 (68.9%), followed by Quezon in 1935 (67.99%). The biggest second term landslide was Quezon in 1941 (81.78%) followed by Marcos in 1969 (61.5%).

Fifth Republic President                 Percentage of Votes Won

Fidel V. Ramos                                         23.58%
Joseph Ejercito Estrada                            39.86%
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo                        39.99%
Benigno S. Aquino III                              42.08%                  

Aside from being the oldest duly elected President in the history of the Philippines at age 71 and making the biggest leap from City Mayor to President, here are some more statistical facts about the Philippines' next President:

Rodrigo Roa Duterte is the first:

First (1st):

    - President from Mindanao and Davao del Sur. Luzon has produced the most number of presidents at 12: Emilio Aguinaldo (Cavite), Manuel L. Quezon (Tayabas), Jose P. Laurel (Batangas), Elpidio Quirino (Ilocos Sur), Ramon Magsaysay (Zambales), Diosdado Macapagal (Pampanga), Ferdinand Marcos (Ilocos Norte), Corazon C. Aquino (Tarlac), Fidel V. Ramos (Pangasinan), Joseph Ejercito Estrada (San Juan, Metro Manila), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Pampanga), and Benigno S. Aquino III (Tarlac). Visayas has produced three: Sergio Osmeña (Cebu), Manuel Roxas (Capiz), and Carlos P. Garcia (Bohol).
    - Agusanon to become Philippine President (her mother is from Agusan del Norte)
    - President born in Maasin, Leyte.
    - City Mayor to become the President. Davao has been a chartered city since 1936.
    - President to be elected in his 70s. He is 71 years old, the oldest to assume the Presidency.
    - President to be nationally elected without a previous national position. Emilio Aguinaldo was not popularly elected, as he was only elected by the Malolos Congress in September 1898.
    - City prosecutor (fiscal) to become President. He was Special Counsel for the City Prosecution Office of Davao City (1977 – 1979), Fourth Assistant City Prosecutor (1979 – 1981), Third Assistant City Prosecutor (1981 – 1983), and Second Assistant City Prosecutor (1983 – 1986). He was, however, the third fiscal elected to the presidency. Manuel L. Quezon served as Provincial Fiscal of Mindoro in 1903 and Provincial Fiscal of Tayabas in 1904. Sergio Osmeña was Provincial Fiscal of Cebu from 1904 to 1905.
    - President who previously served as a vice mayor (OIC in 1986 and elected in 2010).
    - President to have studied in San Beda College of Law. He obtained his Law degree in 1972.
    - President to have studied in the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts, Major in Political Science in 1968.
    - President to have his marriage annulled. He was married to Elizabeth Abellana Zimmerman from 1973 to 2001. His current partner is Cielito “Honeylet” Avanceña.
    - President from Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-LABAN).
    - Duterte and Robredo form the first geographically “balanced” (North-South or Luzon-Visayas/Mindanao) President and Vice President in the Fifth Republic, with Duterte, who is from Davao City, representing the South while Robredo, a native of Camarines Sur, represents the North. However, they ran on different party tickets. The last geographically balanced pair was the Nacionalista Party ticket of Ferdinand E. Marcos (Ilocos Norte) and Fernando Lopez (Iloilo) in 1965.
    - President who rides motorcycles.

Second (2nd):

    - Cebuano to become President: his father, Vicente G. Duterte, was a lawyer from Cebu, while his mother Soledad Roa was a teacher and activist from Agusan del Norte. The last time the Philippines had a Cebuano President was 70 years ago, when Osmeña’s term ended in 1946.  He had assumed presidency in 1944 when he succeeded to the presidency following Quezon’s death from tuberculosis.
    - Non-resident of Metro Manila to be President. The first was Emilio Aguinaldo, who never resided in Provincia de Manila (Metro Manila area), having been occupied by the Americans since the early days of the American Colonial Period in 1898. All the others presidents actually lived in Metro Manila.

If he is inaugurated in the Ceremonial Hall:

    - President to be inaugurated in the Ceremonial Hall. The first was Ferdinand E. Marcos in 1986, before he fled to the United States.

Third (3rd):

    - Mayor to be elected President. Emilio Aguinaldo was the first, as capitan municipal of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit, Cavite) in 1896, and the second was Joseph Ejercito Estrada, who was Mayor of San Juan from 1969 to 1986. Duterte was mayor of Davao City from 1986 to 1998, from 2001 to 2010, and from 2013 to 2016.

Fourth (4th):

    - President to have a March birthday (Mar. 28). The other three were Laurel (Mar. 9), Ramos (Mar. 18), and Aguinaldo (Mar. 22). Two presidents were born in January: Roxas (Jan. 1) and C. Aquino (Jan. 25); one in February: B. Aquino (Feb. 8); two in April: Arroyo (Apr. 5) and Estrada (Apr. 19); two in August: Quezon (Aug. 19) and Magsaysay (Aug. 31); three in September: Osmeña (Sep. 9), Marcos (Sep. 11), and Macapagal (Sep. 28); two in November: Garcia (Nov. 4) and Quirino (Nov. 16).
    - President to have children in government positions while he is the President. Inday Sara Duterte, the presidential daughter, was reelected as Mayor of Davao for 2016 to 2019. The first president to have children in a government post was Ferdinand E. Marcos, who had Ferdinand Marcos Jr. as the governor of Ilocos Norte from 1983 to 1986 under his presidency. At the same time, Marcos’ wife, Imelda Marcos, was also governor of Metro Manila from 1975 to 1986. Joseph Ejercito Estrada had his son  Jinggoy Estrada as Mayor of San Juan from 1998- 2001. Gloria Macapagal – Arroyo had his son Juan Miguel “Mikey” Arroyo as Representative of the 2nd District of Pampanga from 2004 – 2010 and Vice Governor of Pampanga from 2001- 2004.
    - Single President upon entering office. The other single Presidents were: Elpidio Quirino, Corazon Aquino and Benigno S. Aquino III.

Fifth (5th):

    - President to enroll in the Ateneo school system. Other presidents who studied in the Ateneo were: Ramos (Master in Business Administration, 1980), Estrada (Ateneo de Manila High School, attended until 1953), Macapagal- Arroyo (Master of Arts in Economics, 1978), and Aquino III (Bachelor of Arts in Economics, 1981). Duterte attended the Ateneo de Davao University High School.

Sixth (6th):

    - President of the Fifth Republic. Aguinaldo was the lone President of the First Republic; Quezon was the first President of the Commonwealth and Roxas was the last; Laurel was lone President of the Second Republic; Roxas was the first President of the Third Republic and Marcos, the last; Marcos was the first President of the Fourth Republic and Corazon Aquino, briefly served under the Fourth Republic but proclaimed a revolutionary government. The Fifth Republic came into being with the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, and Corazon Aquino, Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, and Aquino III have been presidents of the Fifth Republic.
    - The previous republics are the First (Malolos, 1899-1901); Second (The Japanese Occupation, 1943- 1945); the Third (from independence in 1946 to 1972); the Fourth (the “New Republic” proclaimed in 1981).
    - President to be elected by plurality. Chronologically, the first was Garcia in 1957 with 41.3%. The rest were Ramos with 23.58% (the lowest plurality ever) in 1992; Estrada, 39.86% in 1998; Arroyo, 39.99% in 2004; and B. Aquino, 42.08% in 2010.
    - President to take his oath of office on 30th of June. Other Presidents include Ferdinand E. Marcos (1981), Fidel V. Ramos (1992), Joseph Ejercito Estrada (1998), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2004) and Benigno S. Aquino III (2010).
    - He received almost 16 million votes (38.6%); his winning margin was over 6 million (15.2%).
    - President who does not smoke. The other non-smoking Presidents were: Sergio Osmeña, Elpidio Quirino, Ramon Magsaysay, Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino. Presidents Manuel L. Quezon, Manuel Roxas, Carlos P. Garcia, Joseph Estrada and Benigno S. Aquino were public smokers while Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo, Jose P. Laurel, Fidel V. Ramos, Diosdado Macapagal and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo were occasional smokers.

Seventh (7th):

    - President whose father served in a Philippine government post. His father Vicente Duterte was Mayor of Danao in Cebu (1946), Governor of Davao (1958-1969), and was Cabinet Secretary for General Services for President Ferdinand E. Marcos (1967). Other presidents who have had fathers in Philippine government posts were: Jose P. Laurel (father: Sotero Laurel, Malolos Congress, 1898); Ferdinand Marcos (father: Mariano Marcos, Congressman, 1925-1931); Corazon Aquino (father: Jose Cojuangco, Congressman, 1934-1946); Fidel Ramos (father: Narciso Ramos, Assemblyman later Congressman, 1934-1946, and Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 1965-1968), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (father: Diosdado Macapagal, Congressman, 1949-1957; Vice President, 1957-1961; President, 1961-1965); Benigno Aquino III (father: Benigno Aquino Jr., Special Assistant to President Ramon Magsaysay, 1954; Special Assistant to President Carlos P. Garcia, 1957; Special Assistant to President Diosdado Macapagal, 1965; Mayor of Concepcion, Tarlac, 1955-1959; Vice Governor of Tarlac, 1959-1961; Governor of Tarlac, 1961-1967; Senator, 1967-1972).

Eighth (8th):

    - President to be elected in a six-year term in accordance with the constitutions that empowered them. The other presidents are Manuel L. Quezon (November 15, 1935 – 1941), Corazon Aquino (February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992), Fidel V. Ramos (June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (June 30, 2004 – June 30, 2010), and Benigno S. Aquino III (June 30, 2010 to June 30, 2016). The presidents who were elected in a six-year term but did not get to finish them, were Ferdinand E. Marcos, who under the amended 1973 Constitution in 1981 would have served until 1987 but shortened his term to run in 1986 and was ousted in 1986 by the EDSA People Power Revolution, and Joseph Ejercito Estrada who, under the 1987 Constitution, would have served until 2004, when he stepped down under pressures from EDSA II.

Ninth (9th):

    - Lawyer president in history and the first lawyer president in the Fifth Republic. Other lawyer presidents include Manuel L . Quezon, who passed the Philippine Bar Exam in 1903, Jose P. Laurel in 1915, Sergio Osmeña in 1903, Manuel Roxas in 1913, Elpidio Quirino in 1915, Carlos P. Garcia in 1923, Diosdado Macapagal in 1936, and Ferdinand Marcos in 1939. Duterte passed the Bar in 1972.

Tenth (10th):

    - To be proclaimed President-elect by the Legislature.
    - Congressman to become President. The other presidents who served as Representatives in the Lower House were: Manuel L. Quezon (1907-1909), Osmeña (1907-1922), Roxas (1922-1934), Quirino (1919-1922), Magsaysay (1946-1950), Garcia (1925-1931), Macapagal (1949-1957), Marcos (1949-1959), and B. Aquino III (1998-2007). Arroyo is the only President to serve as Representative in the Lower House after her presidency (2010-2016).
    - President who was inaugurated into office without having been Vice President first. Aguinaldo was first and only President of the First Republic, Quezon was first President of the Commonwealth, Laurel was the first and only President of the Second Republic, Roxas was first president of the Third Republic, Magsaysay was Secretary of National Defense before becoming president, C. Aquino was a Housewife , F. Ramos was Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, and B. Aquino III was a Senator.

Vice President Maria Leonor “Leni” Robredo

Maria Leonor “Leni” Robredo is the fourteenth vice president of the Philippines. The vice-presidency was constitutionally established under the 1935 Constitution, and the line of vice-presidents begins with Sergio Osmena, elected to the position in 1935 and again in 1941. The vice-presidency was abolished under the 2nd Republic and during martial law, and then formally restored in the 4th and 5th Republics.

The list of vice-presidents is therefore 14: Sergio Osmeña, Elpidio Quirino, Fernando Lopez, Carlos P. Garcia, Diosdado Macapagal, Emmanuel Pelaez, Fernando Lopez, Salvador H. Laurel, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Teofisto Guingona Jr., Manuel de Castro Jr., Jejomar Binay, and Leni Robredo. Lopez was the third and seventh vice-president because he was elected to the position under two different administrations (in 1949 and 1965 and again in 1969).

Here are some more statistical facts about the Philippines' next Vice President:

Leni Gerona Robredo is the first:

First (1st):

    - Vice President to hail from the Bicol Region (Camarines Sur).
    - Vice President to have studied in the University of Nueva Caceres College of Law. She obtained her Law Degree in 1992.

Second (2nd):

    - Widow who was elected as Vice President. Elpidio Quirino was the first widower to be elected in the post.
    - Woman vice president. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was the first, under the Estrada presidency from 1998 to 2001.
    - Vice President who held both Degrees in Law and Economics. Leni Robredo finished her Economics Degree from the University of the Philippines in 1986 and obtained her Law Degree from the University of Nueva Caceres in 1992. The first Vice President who was both lawyer and economist was Diosdado Macapagal who finished his Law Degree (1936), Master of Laws (1941), Doctor of Civil Laws (1947) and his Doctorate in Economics (1957) from the University of Santo Tomas.
    - Robredo won by the second narrowest margin of victory ever recorded for a national post in Philippine electoral history, beating Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos Jr. by 0.5% or around 200,000 votes (based on the partial and unofficial count of PPCRV). The slimmest margin of victory ever recorded was during the 1965 vice presidential elections, when Nacionalista candidate Fernando Lopez won against Liberal ticket Gerardo “Gerry” Roxas by 0.4% or less than 27,000 votes.

Third (3rd):

    - Vice President to obtain an economics degree. Leni Robredo finished her Economics Degree from the University of the Philippines in 1986. The other Vice Presidents who held a Degree in Economics were:  Diosdado Macapagal who finished his doctorate of economics from the University of Santo Tomas in 1957. And his daughter, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo who obtained her economics degree from the  Assumption College (1968); Masters of Arts in Economics from the  Ateneo de Manila University (1978) and her Doctorate in Economics from the University of the Philippines (1985).
    - Vice President to be nationally elected without a previous national position prior to the vice presidency, Robredo was elected Representative of the 3rd District of Camarines Sur (2013- 2016), Binay was Mayor of Makati City (2007 – 2010), and Macapagal was Representative of the First District of Pampanga (1949-1957).

Fourth (4th):

    - Vice President who was born in the month of April. Leni Robredo was born on April 23, 1965. The other Vice Presidents who were born in the month of April were: Fernando Lopez (April 13, 1904), Joseph Estrada (April 19, 1937), and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (April 5, 1947).
    - Youngest Vice President in Philippine history. The youngest person to be elected in the Vice Presidency was Fernando Lopez at the age of 45 in 1949. He was followed by Emmanuel Pelaez (46), Diosdado Macapagal (47), and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and Leni Robredo at the age of 51. The oldest to have been Vice President was Teofisto Guingona Jr., when he was appointed to the Vice Presidency in 2001 at the age of 72.

Fifth (5th):

    - Vice President who was not the running mate of an elected President. The first was Diosdado Macapagal, the Liberal Vice President of Nacionalista President Carlos P. Garcia back in 1957. The other pairs were Fidel V. Ramos (Lakas-NUCD) and Joseph Ejercito Estrada (NPC), Estrada (PMP) and Arroyo (Lakas-NUCD), and Benigno S. Aquino III (LP) and Jejomar Binay (PDP-Laban)
    - Vice President from the Liberal Party. The other Liberal Party members who have won the Vice Presidency were: Elpidio Quirino (1946), Fernando Lopez (1949), Diosdado Macapagal (1957) and Emmanuel Pelaez (1961).
    - Vice President elected who was not the running mate of the elected President. The other Vice Presidents elected who were not the running mates of the President-elect were: Diosdado Macapagal, Joseph Estrada, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and Jejomar Binay.

Sixth (6th):

    - Vice President who served previously as member of the House of Representatives. Other vice presidents were: Osmeña (Representative of the 2nd District of Cebu, 1907 – 1922), Quirino (Representative of the 1st District of Ilocos, 1919 – 1922), Garcia (Representative of the third district of Bohol, 1925-1931), Macapagal (Representative of the 1st District of Pampanga, 1949 -1957), and Pelaez (Representative of Misamis Oriental, 1949 – 1953). Robredo was elected Representative of the 3rd District of Camarines Sur from 2013  to 2016.

Seventh (7th):

    - Vice president who graduated from the University of the Philippines System. Other vice presidents from the UP were: Quirino (Bachelor of Laws, 1915), Macapagal (Associate in Arts,1933), Pelaez (Associate in Arts, 1933). Laurel (Bachelor of Laws, 1952), Macapagal-Arroyo (Doctorate in Economics, 1985), Binay (Bachelor of Laws, 1967). Robredo graduated from the University of the Philippines Diliman in 1986 with a Bachelor’s degree in Economics.
    Vice President to be elected to a six-year term. The other Vice Presidents were: Sergio Osmeña, Salvador Laurel, Joseph Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Manuel de Castro Jr. and Jejomar Binay.

Eighth (8th):

    - Vice President to win by plurality. Chronologically, the first was Diosdado Macapagal (46.6% in the 1957 Elections), followed by Pelaez with 38% in 1961, Lopez with 48.1% in 1965, Estrada with 33% in 1992, Macapagal-Arroyo with 50% in 1998, de Castro with 49.8% in 2004, and Binay with 41.7% in 2010.
    Eight months after her declaration of candidacy, Leni Robredo will be inaugurated as the 14th Vice President of the Philippines on June 30, 2016.

Ninth (9th):

    - Lawyer vice president in history and the fourth lawyer vice president in the Fifth Republic. Other lawyer vice presidents were: Sergio Osmeña (University of Santo Tomas 1903),  Elpidio Quirino (University of the Philippines, 1915), Fernando Lopez (University of Santo Tomas, 1925), Carlos P. Garcia (Philippine Law School, 1923), Diosdado Macapagal (University of Santo Tomas, 1936), Emmanuel Pelaez (University of Manila, 1938), Salvador Laurel (University of the Philippines, 1952), Teofisto Guingona Jr. (Ateneo de Manila University, 1953), Jejomar Binay (University of the Philippines, 1967. Robredo obtained her law degree from the University of Nueva Caceres in 1992.

    - Vice President who was born in Luzon. The other Vice Presidents from Luzon were: Elpidio Quirino (Ilocos Sur), Diosdado Macapagal (Pampanga), Salvador Laurel (Manila), Joseph Estrada (Manila), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Manila), Teofisto Guingona (Rizal), Manuel de Castro (Oriental Mindoro) and Jejomar Binay (Manila).

Tenth (10th):

    Vice President to be proclaimed Vice President-elect by the legislature: the first was Sergio Osmeña, followed by Elpidio Quirino, Fernando Lopez, Carlos P. Garcia, Diosdado Macapagal, Joseph Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Manuel de Castro Jr. and Jejomar Binay.

Information Taken From:

Philippine Presidential Museum and Library -

Photo Source:

Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines Facebook Page -

Malacañan Palace Facebook Page

Thursday, May 12, 2016

The Help Of The Katao

The katao or mermaid is considered a guardian angel by the Ilonggo fishermen. A family faces a dire and tough needs and help. They don’t have anything to eat and adding to that, the wife got sick. There’s no catch for the husband. The husband prayed fervently and God heard his prayers. A mermaid appeared to him and told him to follow her and on the place she pointed he should spread out his net. The man caught a great catch of fish. By selling his catch, the fisherman was able to provide medicine and proper health care to his sick wife and provided food to his starving family.

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Wednesday, May 11, 2016

The Adventures of Juan Pusong

There are kind hearted old couple who has a good relationship, obedience and loyalty despite hardship, poverty and struggles. It could have been an ultimate happiness for them if they could only have a child.

One day, the man collected woods while the woman washes clothes in the river. The latter is so busy with her work when she saw a watermelon (sandiya in Hiligaynon) floating towards her. The humongous watermelon which caught her attention is getting closer and closer. She reaches out and grab the object and carefully put it in batya. She hurriedly finished her laundry and went home.

When the man went home that afternoon, the woman showed him the watermelon. They were both happy with the founding of the watermelon because they have something to eat. The man gets a knife to cut open the watermelon but it opened voluntarily. A little baby boy came out foretelling:  “Don’t be scared, I’m all yours now sent by God from heaven.”

Such is the delight of the couple. They baptized the child to a wise man. The child was called Huan or Juan Pusong.

Huan Pusong is a very strong child and his growing up years is like a blown up balloon. He is well loved by his adopted parents and considered him their own child. Juan Pusong loves to play with birds and other animals.

One day, Juan Pusong asked permission to go to the town proper. When he reached the town, he went to the market to buy some crabs and salt which was ordered by her mother. For the first time going away from home, there are lots of things attracted him. It’s already afternoon when he traced his path going home. In traversing the way, he needs to cross a stream. When Juan saw the carabaos or water buffalo swimming in the water he felt some humidity and convinced to take a bath. He remembered the request of his mother. He thought of a way to have the items he bought in the market to arrive first in their home. He let loose the buri bundle and said to the crabs;

“Crabs, you go home first since you can crawl. Tell my mother that I’ll go home bringing the salt. Just follow this path. On the first house that you can reach, you should stop because my mother is on the door and waiting. She will receive you.”

The crabs crawled. Juan put the salt in a big rock. He was scared it will fall so he transferred it to a hole with water. And off Juan happily took a bath, climbing at the back of the carabaos or water buffalo and jumping off the carabao to the water. When he look back, he saw the crawling crabs. He chased them but all of the crabs entered a hollow area. He took off the water to get the salt. In his stupefaction, the salt became water.

There’s a lot more stories about the adventures of Juan Pusong which is almost the same as Juan Tamad of the Tagalogs.

Though he is just a simple character, Juan gets some attention. Juan is a delight despite of his stupidity and laziness. The anecdotes about him is full of laughter.

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Mama Suli Of Cabatuan

Mama Suli was born before Cabatuan was the name of the town. According to some natives, she came from the clan of Sumakwel and a close relative of Tan Tono, the first gobernadorcillo of Cabatuan.

Mama Suli was born in Bugton, a sitio of Jelicuon. Bugtong which means only child is about a kilometer from Jelicuon Elementary School. In this place, Suli spent her days.

Mama Suli is an extraordinary individual because she was born a breech baby, born bottom first instead of head first. She was called by the name Mama Suli because she was born a breech or suli in Hiligaynon. She is tall and has big body physique. She has a big body but her neck is short. She has a narrow forehead and big ears which shapes like a cup with sharp hearing which can be compared to a radio receiver or a mobile phone signal in the present times. His nose is average in size but shapes like the beak of a parrot. Her eyes are also big and she has a funny face and head.

Mama Suli has an extraordinary figure. Two long legs and with arms about a foot less before it touches the ground when she stretches it. When she is in a squatting position, her head is longer than her knees so that she can see things and objects on her front through sneaking in between her legs. She has no compare in strength and bravery during her time. She is quick to move when needed especially during battles. She can easily defeat in running and to any contest any men of her time.

One day, a carabao or water buffalo fell down the cliff. Mama Suli single-handed pull up and in an instance, the carabao was lifted up. Her other movements are peculiar. In climbing a tree, stairs or hills, she is using her two feet first and a bending head. If the trees are close to each other, she just jump across it to pick up some fruits.

Suli is an local herb doctor or locally called albularyo. She knows and identify each herbs, shrubs, tree roots, and woods as treatment of any disease and she knows what herbs or shrubs should be used to a specific illness of a person who comes to her. However her unusual ability is the removal of fish bone stuck in the throat because she was born a breech baby. Breech born people has this special ability of removing fish bone in the throats of any person. By touching the neck of an affected person, in an instance the fishbone is gone from their throats. Another of her abilities is her healing the new and deep wounds, cripple and sprained or limped bones. She was called himagan. The himagan is a person who can cure or heal an illness, ailment or malady by touching or applying some of the concocted herbal oil  or saliva as a cure. Her touching therapy is effective, most especially if the patient is a female, young and beautiful.

Mama Suli is fair and just. Because of that, she was loved, honored and respected by everyone who knows her. She always defend Cabatuan most especially Jelicuon against the bandits and thieves who wants to attack the place. She can fight singled-handedly the bandits thus she was called one-man army. Her only weapon is a sharp dagger because she is quick, strong, agile and fearless.

It so happened during the time of Mama Suli, Cabatuan is frequented by many thieves and bandits from neighboring towns which disturb the peace and safety of the place. The mastermind of the violence is Pedro Barbon which has a thick beard.  He is tall, harsh and cruel. He gets anything he wants or desire, kill anyone who oppose him, harm innocent people and rape the girl he likes. He is always riding a big, black horse and always carrying his weapons, a gun on his side, a rifle on his shoulder and a dagger on his waist.

The Captain of the place is confused. He could not curb the crime committed by Pedro. The captain heard the plot to kill him and Pedro will lead the local government. The captain offer a reward to any people of Cabatuan who can kill Pedro Barbon.

During this time, Mama Suli was over 60 years old already and too old to fight cruel people who were younger than her but to Suli the reward she heard was like a temptation. What if something will happen to her? She's already old. Besides that, she has this aim to show the world that she is brave and have a kind heart.

She secretly left her home in Bugtong going to Inabasan and went to the barrio often visited by Pedro. Suli expected that in this place she will encounter and fight Pedro.

It was by chance when Suli arrived in Inabasan, Pedro also came. So Suli prepares herself by going at the back of a mound tip toing and between her two legs, she sneaks through the arrival of Pedro.

Suli was shivering when she saw Pedro. She tried so hard to gather all her strength, courage and skill in fighting. Next is the exchange of feisty words. Pedro became furious because this is the first time he was threatened and humiliated.

Aside from this, the humiliation came from an old person without any weapon. Pedro could not use a gun since his enemy is at the back of a mound. He certainly assured that he could not be hurt by Suli. He walk closer towards the mound to have a chance to shot his enemy.

Suli is also intuitive while waiting the closer coming of Pedro in the mound. She calculated the distance she can use in jumping and kicking out his enemy.

When she got the chance, she jumped and kicked Pedro which caused him to fall from his horse. Before Pedro can even stand up, Suli pulled out her dagger and stabbed her enemy through his heart. Suli thought of bringing to the captain the body of her slain opponent as a proof that she is the one who killed Pedro. For the reason that the body is too heavy, Suli thought of just cutting his tongue. She immediately opened his mouth, cut his tongue and wrapped it with banana leaves and put it in her pocket. She left the place and when she passed in Barrio Salakay, bought some tuba or palm wine and drink to relieve her of exhaustion and tiredness and to regain her energy.

Some people passed by the body of Pedro and remember the reward offered by the captain to anyone who can kill Pedro. So they thought of getting anything from the slain body to convince the captain that they are the one who killed the bandits. These people were the first to arrive at the municipal hall and introduce themselves as the one who killed Pedro. One person who claimed he was the one who killed brought a dagger of Pedro, another person brought a gun and third brought a dagger and on his other hand carrying the head of Pedro.

After awhile, Suli arrived and for quick chat she introduced herself as the one who killed Pedro. Everyone around laugh so hard even the captain because they never saw Suli carrying a proof that she killed Pedro. Aside from that, this is the first time they saw the face of Suli.

Suli asked the people who claimed to have killed Pedro to open the mouth of the slain enemy. They open it and showed it to the crowd and they were all surprised to see why the tongue is gone. In that instance, she told them that they should not be surprised because she already got it and that is her proof as the real slayer of Pedro. To convince the captain,she slowly picked in her pocket the tongue wrapped in banana leaves. Everyone believed she is the one who slayed Pedro.

The reward is a huge coconut shell filled with Spanish gold coins.

The celebration was held and the family of Suli was invited to watch to bestow the reward to Suli. The dances like kuratsa, kamantugol and many others were performed. When the celebration is finished, Suli and her family return to Bugtong to live peacefully. The hero went on to live for more than 110 years old.

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Monday, May 9, 2016


This folk tales came from the town of Guimbal.

The name Tan Adi is always connected with strength.

It was said that Tan Adi came from Camangahan but he is married to a woman in Sipitan. He has two brothers, Andoy and Fermin and a sister, Inocencia (nicknamed Osing). Tan Adi's hobby is to catch shrimps and crabs in a creek called "Sapa Buhi" or Live Stream or Active Creek. He is using a basket made of bamboo called "tagub" where he puts some bait. He gets his catch from the basket early in the morning because it is submerged in the water overnight. He always caught shrimps and crabs enough for food everyday.

One morning, he was surprised to see that there's no catch inside the basket. This peculiar situation happened again the next morning. Tan Adi suspects someone is making a prank or is doing some tricks on him. So what he did is to hide among the bamboos near and fronting the shores of the stream. All night long he tried to stay awake to watch. At about four o'clock in the morning, his attention was caught by the rustling of leaves from the trees lining up the shores. An unexplained object is moving on this corner. When it came closer, Tan Adi saw a very tall creature. When it bows down to gather the crabs and shrimps, Tan Adi gets his thong belt and caught the giant using it and since the belt is sacred, the giant got scared. The giant attempted to get loose but Tan Adi's grip on the belt is too tight. The trapped giant ran from Iloilo to Antique and back but nothing happened.

In exhaustion finally the giant begs.

"Remove the belt on my neck and I will give you a powerful amulet."

"I will set you free if you bring me back to Sapang Buhi," said Tan Adi.

The giant did so and aside from this, he gave Tan Adi three pieces of his beard.

"This will give you an unusual strength," advised by the giant.

Tan Adi gets one piece of it and put it in the biceps of his right arm. He gave the other two pieces to his brothers. Since then, Tan Adi possesses an unusual strength.

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