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Saturday, October 30, 2010

ANCHS Class 2000 - 2001 Articles

I am going to feature the writings from my school publication when I graduated from high school 9 years ago. I will post articles such as valedictory and salutatory address, commencement speech and most of all are the class will and testament, class prophecy and the class history that tells all about our class background flashback, our dreams and the innate character we possess that we want to inherit to the next batch of young dreamers and achievers.

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Filipino Presidents

Benigno Simeon Toribio Cojuangco Aquino III
15th President of the Philippines
(born 1960; president 2010 - present)
The Bachelor President; The Abnormal President



        Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III[1] (pronounced /bɛˈnigno aˈkino/ in most Philippine languages, /bɛˈnɪgnoʊ əˈkinoʊ/ in English); also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is the fifteenth and current President of the Philippines. Aquino is a fourth-generation politician: his great-grandfather, Servillano "Mianong" Aquino, served as a delegate to the Malolos Congress; his grandfather, Benigno Aquino, Sr., held several legislative positions from 1919–44; and his parents were former President Corazon Aquino and former Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. Aquino is a member of the Liberal Party.In the Liberal Party, Aquino held various positions such as Secretary General and Vice President for Luzon. Aquino is currently the Vice-Chairman of the Liberal Party. He is the first and only bachelor President and also the only autistic and mentally challenged President elected into office.
       Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino III was born on February 8, 1960 in Manila. Aquino is the third of the five children of Benigno Aquino, Jr., who was then the Vice Governor of Tarlac province, and Corazon Aquino. He has four sisters, Maria Elena (Ballsy) Aquino-Cruz, Aurora Corazon (Pinky) Aquino-Abellada, Victoria Eliza (Viel) Aquino-Dee, and Kristina Bernadette (Kris) Aquino-Yap.
        From 1965 to 1981, Aquino attended Ateneo de Manila University from elementary to college. Eleven months after Aquino's father, Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., was arrested and detained for "advocating the overthrow of the government by force or violence", Ninoy was brought before a military tribunal in Moran Hall, Fort Bonifacio in August 1973. On August 25, 1973, Ninoy wrote a letter to his son, Noynoy from Fort Bonifacio at 11:10 p.m., giving advice to his son;

"The only advice I can give you: Live with honor and follow your conscience.

There is no greater nation on earth than our Motherland. No greater people than our own. Serve them with all your heart, with all your might and with all your strength.

Son, the ball is now in your hands."

       In 1981, Aquino graduated from Ateneo de Manila University, earning a Bachelor's degree in Economics. Shortly after graduation, he joined his family in Newton, Massachusetts, in exile.
       In 1983, after two years in exile in the United States, Aquino returned to the Philippines with his family, shortly after the assassination of his father on August 21, 1983. He had a short tenure as a member of the Philippine Business for Social Progress, working as an assistant of the executive director of PBSP. He later joined Mondragon Industries Philippines, Inc. as an assistant Retail Sales Supervisor and assistant promotions manager for Nike Philippines, Inc.
      From 1986 to 1992, during the presidency of his mother, Aquino joined the Intra-Strata Assurance Corporation, a company owned by his uncle Antolin Oreta Jr., as vice president.
     On August 28, 1987, eighteen months into the presidency of Aquino's mother, rebel soldiers led by Gregorio Honasan staged an unsuccessful coup attempt, attempting to siege Malacañang Palace. Aquino was two blocks from the palace when he came under fire. Three of Aquino's four security escorts were killed, and the last was wounded protecting him. He himself was hit by five bullets, one of which is still embedded in his neck.
     From 1993 to 1998, Aquino worked for Central Azucarera de Tarlac, the sugar refinery in charge of the Cojuangco-owned Hacienda Luisita, as the executive assistant for administration from 1993 to 1996, then he worked as manager for field services from 1996 to 1998
     Born in Manila, Aquino graduated from Ateneo de Manila University in 1981 and joined his family in their exile in the United States shortly thereafter. He returned to the Philippines in 1983 shortly after the assassination of his father and held several positions working in the private sector. In 1998, he was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province. He was subsequently re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004. In 2007, having been barred from running for re-election to the House due to the term limit, he was elected to the Senate in the 14th Congress of the Philippines.
         Following the death of his mother on August 1, 2009, many people began calling on Aquino to run for president. On September 9, 2009, Aquino officially announced he would be a candidate in the 2010 presidential election, held on May 10, 2010.
        On June 9, 2010, the Congress of the Philippines proclaimed Aquino the winner of the 2010 presidential election.
        On June 30, 2010, at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila, Aquino was sworn into office as the fifteenth President of the Philippines, succeeding Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, by Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Conchita Carpio-Morales.
      Despite the official residence of the President being Malacañang Palace, his actual residence is the Bahay Pangarap (English: House of Dreams), located within the Palace grounds.

Source: Wikipedia

Filipino Presidents

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
14th President of the Philippines
(born 1947; president 2001 - 2010)
Transition and Iron Lady President



        Maria Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga. She was the country's second female president (after Corazón Aquino), and the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal.
      She was born as María Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal on April 5, 1947 in San Juan formerly a town that is a part of the Rizal province, to politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife, Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado "Boboy" Macapagal, Jr. & Cielo Macapagal-Salgado. She spent the first years of her life in Lubao, Pampanga with her two older siblings from her father's first marriage. At the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal grandmother in Iligan City. She stayed there for three years, then split her time between Mindanao and Manila until the age of 11. She is fluent in English, Tagalog, Spanish and several other Philippine languages, most importantly, Kapampangan, Ilokano, and Cebuano.
      In 1961, when Arroyo was just 14 years old, her father was elected as president. She moved with her family into Malacañang Palace in Manila. A municipality was named in her honor, Gloria, Oriental Mindoro. She attended Assumption Convent for her elementary and high school education, graduating valedictorian in 1964. Arroyo then studied for two years at Georgetown University's Walsh School of Foreign Service in Washington, D.C. where she was a classmate of future United States President Bill Clinton and achieved consistent Dean's list status. She then earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Assumption College, graduating magna cum laude in 1968.
      In 1968, Arroyo married lawyer and businessman Jose Miguel Arroyo of Binalbagan, Negros Occidental, whom she had met while still a teenager. They had three children, Juan Miguel (born 1969), Evangelina Lourdes (born 1971) and Diosdado Ignacio José María (born in 1974). She pursued a Master's Degree in Economics at the Ateneo de Manila University (1978) and a Doctorate Degree in Economics from the University of the Philippines (1985). From 1977 to 1987, she held teaching positions in several schools, notably the University of the Philippines and the Ateneo de Manila University. She became chairperson of the Economics Department at Assumption College.
      In 1987 she was invited by President Corazón Aquino to join the government as Assistant Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry. She was promoted to Undersecretary two years later. In her concurrent position as Executive Director of the Garments and Textile Export Board, Arroyo oversaw the rapid growth of the garment industry in the late 1980s.
      A professor of economics, Arroyo entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazón Aquino.
Arroyo entered politics in the 1992 election, running for senator. At the first general election under the 1987 Constitution, the top twelve vote-getting senatorial candidates would win a six-year term, and the next twelve candidates would win a three-year term. Arroyo ranked 13th in the elections, earning a three-year term. She was re-elected in 1995, topping the senatorial elections with nearly 16 million votes.As a legislator, Arroyo filed over 400 bills and authored or sponsored 55 laws during her tenure as senator, including the Anti-Sexual Harassment Law, the Indigenous People's Rights Law, and the Export Development Act. The 1995 Mining Act, which allows 100% foreign ownership of Philippine mines, has come under fire from left-wing political groups. After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket.Arroyo considered a run for the presidency in the 1998 election, but was persuaded by President Fidel V. Ramos and leaders of the administration party Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats to instead seek the vice-presidency as the running mate of its presidential candidate, House Speaker José de Venecia, Jr. Though the latter lost to popular former actor Joseph Ejército Estrada, Arroyo won the vice presidency by a large margin, garnering more than twice the votes of her closest opponent, Estrada's running mate Senator Edgardo Angara.
        After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition to the president, who faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced from office by the EDSA Revolution of 2001, and Arroyo was sworn into the presidency by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. on January 20, 2001.Arroyo considered a run for the presidency in the 1998 election, but was persuaded by President Fidel V. Ramos and leaders of the administration party Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats to instead seek the vice-presidency as the running mate of its presidential candidate, House Speaker José de Venecia, Jr. Though the latter lost to popular former actor Joseph Ejército Estrada, Arroyo won the vice presidency by a large margin, garnering more than twice the votes of her closest opponent, Estrada's running mate Senator Edgardo Angara.
       Arroyo began her term as Vice President on June 30, 1998. Historically, she was the first and only to date female Vice President of the Philippines. She was appointed by Estrada to a concurrent position in the cabinet as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development.
       Arroyo resigned from the cabinet in October 2000, distancing herself from President Estrada, who was accused of corruption by a former political supporter, Chavit Singson, Governor from Ilocos Sur. She had initially resisted pressure from allies to speak out against Estrada, but eventually joined calls for Estrada's resignation. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004. Following her presidency she was elected to the House of Representatives, making her the second Philippine president - after Jose P. Laurel - to pursue a lower office after their presidency.
            In November 2009, Arroyo formally declared her intention to run for a seat in the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga, making her the second Philippine President – after Jose P. Laurel – to pursue a lower office after the expiration of their presidency. A petition seeking to disqualify Arroyo from the race was dismissed by the Comelec for lack of merit, a decision which was later affirmed by the Supreme Court. With little serious competition, she was elected to congress in May 2010 with a landslide victory. After receiving final military honors at the inauguration ceremony of incoming President Benigno Aquino III, she headed straight to Pampanga for her own oath-taking as congresswoman.
       On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud. She was held at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage. but released on bail in July 2012. She was rearrested while in the hospital on charges of misuse of $8.8 million in state lottery funds in October 2012.
       While still confined in the Veterans Medical Centre, Arroyo successfully earned a second term as congresswoman for Pampanga's second legislative district at the conclusion of the 2013 Philippine mid-term elections on 13 May 2013, defeating the ruling Liberal Party's Vivian Dabu who was the provincial administrator under priest-turned-politician former Governor Among Ed Panlilio.


Source: Wikipedia

Filipino Presidents

Joseph E. Estrada
13th President of the Philippines
(born 1937; president 1998 - 2001)
President of the Poor and the Underprivileged



     Joseph "Erap" Estrada was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the only president to have resigned from office and was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.
    Jose Marcelo Ejercito was born on April 19, 1937 in Tondo, the poorest district of Manila. He belonged to an upper middle class family, and was the eighth of 10 children of Emilio Ejercito, a government engineer, and his wife Maria Marcelo.He finished his primary studies at the Ateneo de Manila University. He went to Mapúa Institute of Technology to continue schooling with an engineering course, but dropped out from studies altogether two years later.
     In his twenties, he began a career as a film actor. He adopted the screen name "Joseph Estrada", as his father objected to his chosen career and his decision to quit schooling. He also acquired the nickname "Erap" (a play on the Tagalog word "pare", meaning buddy) from his good friend Fernando Poe, Jr..
     Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in an acting career spanning 33 years. He leveraged his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics, serving as mayor of San Juan for seventeen years, as Senator for one term, then as Vice President of the Philippines under the administration of President Fidel Ramos.
    He played the lead role of Jesse Mcchesky in more than 100 movies, and was producer of over 70 films. He was the first FAMAS Hall of Fame recipient for Best Actor (1981) and also became a Hall of Fame award-winner as a producer (1983). He often played heroes of the downtrodden classes, which gained him the admiration of a lot of the nation's many unschooled and impoverished citizens. This later proved advantageous to his political career.
     In 1974 he founded the Movie Workers Welfare Foundation (MOWELFUND) which helps movie makers through medical reimbursements, hospitalization, surgery and death benefits, livelihood, and alternative income opportunities and housing. Its educational arm, the MOWELFUND Film Institute, has produced some of the most skilled and respected producers, filmmakers, writers and performers in both the independent and mainstream sectors of the industry since its inception in 1979. He also founded, together with Dr. Guillermo De Vega, the first Metro Manila Film Festival in 1975.
     Estrada entered politics in 1967 when he ran for mayor of San Juan, a municipality of Metro Manila and succeeded in only 1969 after winning an electoral protest against Dr. Braulio Sto. Domingo. When Corazon Aquino assumed the presidency in 1986, all elected officials of the local government were forcibly removed and replaced by appointed officers-in-charge including then Mayor Estrada.
    The following year, he won a seat in the Senate under the Grand Alliance for Democracy (GAD) placing 16th in the elections (out of 24 winners). As senator, Erap denounced the presence of US military bases in the country. He became chairman of the senate committee on cultural minorities and passed a bill on commission on ancestral domain.
     In 1992, Joseph Estrada ran for vice-president as the running mate of Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr. under the Nationalist People's Coalition party. Though the latter lost to former National Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos, Estrada won the vice-presidency garnering more votes than his closest opponent, Ramon Mitra, Jr.'s running mate, Marcelo Fernan.
     As Vice-President, he was the chairman of President Ramos' Presidential Anti-Crime Commission (PACC). Estrada arrested criminal warlords and kidnapping syndicates. He resigned as chairman of the PACC on 1997. In 1997 Vice-President Estrada, together with former President Corazon Aquino, Cardinal Jaime Sin, Senator Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and other political leaders, led an anti-charter change rally brought in an estimated half a million people to Rizal Park against the charter change moves by supporters of President Fidel Ramos.
     The 1998 presidential election campaign, like most presidential election campaigns in the Philippines, had hardly anything to do with a contest between political platforms and programs. Estrada’s political strategists and financial backers were aware that a large share of the Philippine electorate, the "masa" (the poor and undereducated masses), were looking for a leadership they could relate to. Estrada’s financial backers designed a campaign strategy that reflected Estrada’s pro-poor image that he had built up throughout his movie career. Central in the was the slogan "Erap para sa Mahirap"(Erap for the poor) that inspired the masses in the hope that Estrada would be the President of and for the masses. Estrada's running mate,   Edgardo Angara, was defeated by Gloria Macapacal-Arroyo.
    Estrada was elected President in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers, and was sworn into the presidency on June 30, 1998. Estrada was inaugurated in the historical town of Malolos in Bulacan province in paying tribute to the cradle of the First Philippine Republic. That afternoon the new president delivered his inaugural address at the Quirino Grandstand in Luneta. He assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis and with agricultural problems due to poor weather conditions, thereby slowing the economic growth to -0.6% in 1998 from a 5.2% in 1997. The economy recovered by 3.4% in 1999 and 4% in 2000.[12] In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured it's headquarters and other camps. However, allegations of corruption spawned a railroaded impeachment trial in the Senate courtesy of house speaker Manuel Villar, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted from a coup after the trial was aborted.

In his Inaugural Address, Estrada said:
     "One hundred years after Kawit, fifty years after independence, twelve years after EDSA, and seven years after the rejection of foreign bases, it is now the turn of the masses to experience liberation. We stand in the shadow of those who fought to make us free- free from foreign domination, free from domestic tyranny, free from superpower dictation, free from economic backwardness."

      In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps. However, allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted from a power grab after former Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. allowed the prosecution to walk out of the impeachment court when the Senator Judges voted no in the opening of the second envelope which is not part of the impeachment complaint.
     In 2007, he was sentenced by the special division of the Sandiganbayan to reclusion perpetua for plunder, but was later granted pardon by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
     In 2013, he became the mayor of the city of Manila. 


Source: Wikipedia

Filipino Presidents

Fidel V. Ramos
12th President of the Philippines
(born 1928; president 1992 - 1998)
Most Travelled President



       Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.
      Fidel Ramos was born on March 18, 1928 in Lingayen, Pangasinan. His father, Narciso Ramos (1900–1986), was a lawyer, journalist and 5-term legislator of the House of Representatives, who eventually rose to the position of Secretary of Foreign Affairs. As such, Narciso Ramos was the Philippine signatory to the ASEAN declaration forged in Bangkok in 1967 and was one of the founding fathers of the Liberal Party. His mother, Angela Valdez-Ramos (1905–1977), was an educator, woman suffragette and daughter of the respected Valdez clan of Batac, Ilocos Norte making him a second degree cousin to Ferdinand Marcos.
Ramos was educated at the United States Military Academy and University of Illinois, where he earned a master's degree in civil engineering. He also holds a master's degree in National Security Administration from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a Master's in Business Administration (MBA) from the Ateneo de Manila University.
       Ramos went to the United States Military Academy at West Point, and he graduated in 1950. Ramos, along with the Philippines' 20th Battalion Combat Team and his fellow West Point graduates of the 1950s, fought in the Korean War. Ramos was one of the heroes of the Battle of Hill Eerie, where he led his platoon to sabotage the enemy in Hill Eerie. He was also present in the Vietnam War as a non-combat civil military engineer and commanding officer of the Philippine Civic Action Group (PHILCAGV). It is during this assignment where he forged his life-long friendship with his junior officer Maj. Jose T. Almonte, who went on to become his National Security Advisor all through out during his administration from 1992-1998.
       Ramos has received several military awards including the Philippine Legion of Honor, the Distinguished Conduct Star, Philippine Military Merit Medal, the United States Legion of Merit, the French Legion of Honor and the U.S. Military Academy Distinguished Graduate Award.
       After Aquino assumed the Presidency, she appointed Ramos Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and later Secretary of National Defense. During this time, Ramos personally handled the military operations that crushed nine coup attempts against the Aquino government. During Ramos' presidency, the National Unification Commission was created, and its chairman Haydee Yorac, together with Ramos, recommended to President Aquino that she grant amnesty to the rebel military officers of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM) led by Col. Gregorio "Gringo" Honasan.
       In December 1991, Ramos declared his candidacy for President. He however, lost the nomination of the dominant party Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP) to House Speaker Ramon Mitra, Jr. Days later, he bolted LDP and founded the Partido Lakas Tao (People Power Party), inviting Cebu Governor Emilio Mario Osmeña as his Vice President. The party formed a coalition with the National Union of Christian Democrats (NUCD) of Senator Raul Manglapus and the United Muslim Democrats of the Philippines (UMDP) of Ambassador Sanchez Ali. Ramos and Osmeña, together with Congressman (later House Speaker) Jose de Venecia, campaigned for economic reforms and improved national security and unity.
      He won the seven-way race on May 11, 1992, narrowly defeating populist Agrarian Reform Secretary Miriam Defensor Santiago. Despite winning, he garnered only 23.58% of the vote, the lowest plurality in the country's history. The election results were marred by allegations of fraud, though cheating on a large scale has not been proven. However, his running mate, Governor Osmeña, lost to Senator Joseph Estrada as Vice President.
      Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the Cabinet of President Corazon Aquino first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and, later on, as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991.
      During the historic 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos, along with then Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, was hailed as a hero by many Filipinos for his decision to breakaway from the administration of the late strongman Ferdinand Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly-established revolutionary government of President Aquino, following the downfall of Marcos from power in February 1986. Previously, he was the AFP vice chief-of-staff under President Marcos.
     Under Ramos' leadership, the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion, as a result of his policies and programs designed to foster national reconciliation and unity. Ramos was able to secure major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. Ramos also aggressively pushed for the deregulation of the nation's major industries and the privatization of bad government assets. As a result of his hands-on approach to the economy, the Philippines was dubbed by various international magazines and observers as Asia's Next Economic Tiger.
      However, the momentum in the economic gains made under the Ramos Administration was briefly interrupted during the onset of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Nevertheless, during the last year of Ramos' term, the economy managed to make a rebound since it was not severely hit by the crisis as compared to other Asian economies.
      To date, Ramos is the first and only non-Catholic President of the Philippines. He belongs to the Protestant United Methodist Church.


Source : Wikipedia

Filipino Presidents

Corazon C. Aquino
11th President of the Philippines
(1933-2009; president 1986 - 1992)
Mother of Democracy



          Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office. Aquino was also the first popularly and democratically-elected female president and head of state in Asia. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled the authoritarian regime of the late strongman Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines. "Tita (Auntie) Cory", as she was affectionately known, is revered by many Filipinos as an icon of democracy and was hailed by TIME Magazine in 1986 as its 'Woman of the Year.
         Corazon Cojuangco was born on January 25, 1933 in the town of Paniqui in the province of Tarlac. Cory Aquino was the 6th child of Jose Cojuangco (Don Pepe), nephew of the legendary Ysidra Cojuangco (Doña Sidra), and Demetria Sumulong (Doña Metring), a daughter of ex-Cojuangco family lawyer turned senator Juan Marquez Sumulong of Antipolo City, Rizal province. The Cojuangcos were big landowners while the Sumulongs were influential politicians in both Lower and Upper Chambers of the Philippine Congress. She, like her sisters Josephine, Teresita ("Terê") and Maria Paz, as well as their uncle Eduardo's wife Josephine "Nene" Murphy, studied in Saint Scholastica's College, Manila, an all girl's Catholic school run by German nuns in pre-war Manila. Unlike her siblings, the young Cory was unassuming and simple. She wore hand-me-down uniforms used by her sister Terê. Her favorite subject was Mathematics, and upon graduating from elementary school, she received the highest honors. Her studies were interrupted when the Japanese invaded Manila. After World War II, she and her siblings as well as her cousins Ramon Cojuangco and Lourdes (now Mrs. Luis Tirso Rivilla) was sent by her father to the United States. The young Ms. Cory divided her time between the Cojuangco homes in New York (USA), Pasay, Ermita, Punta in Santa Ana district, Dasmarinas Village (in Makati), the northern city of Baguio, the Hacienda Luisita and their hometown of Paniqui, Tarlac. For some summers in the United States, she was treated by her father, Don Pepe, to excursions to Washington, DC and trans-Atlantic voyages aboard the RMS Queen Mary. While studying in New England, she would develop a love of the French language. Besides English, Tagalog, and Kapampangan, she would also remain fluent in French for the rest of her life. Upon her own choosing, her secluded and easy years ended with her marriage to the grandson of Genera Servillano Aquino, Sen. Benigno Aquino Jr.
         A self-proclaimed "plain housewife",Aquino was married to Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., the popular opposition leader and staunchest critic of then President Ferdinand Marcos. Senator Aquino was assassinated on August 21, 1983 upon returning to the Philippines after three years in exile in the United States.
After her husband's assassination, the widowed Aquino became the reluctant leader of the opposition against the authoritarian rule of the Marcos regime. She united the fragmented opposition and strengthened its moral crusade against the abuses and excesses of President Marcos' martial rule. In late 1985, when President Marcos called for a snap election, Cory Aquino challenged his regime. Aquino thrust herself into the political arena after one million signatures urging her to run for president were presented to her.
        Despite having no prior political experience, Aquino proved to be an effective leader, inspiring orator and skilled campaigner. She ran for president with former senator Salvador Laurel as her vice-presidential running mate. After the elections were held on February 7, 1986, the Marcos-controlled Batasang Pambansa proclaimed him the winner in the elections, Aquino called for massive civil disobedience protests against him, declaring herself as having been cheated and as the real winner in the elections. Filipinos enthusiastically heeded her call and rallied behind her. These series of events eventually led to the ouster of Marcos and the installation of Aquino as President of the Philippines on February 25, 1986 through the People Power Revolution.
        As President, Aquino oversaw the restoration of democracy in the Philippines and the promulgation of a new constitution, which limited the powers of the presidency and established a bicameral legislature. Her administration gave strong emphasis and concern for civil liberties and human rights, peace talks and dialogues with communist insurgents and Muslim secessionists. Aquino's economic policies, meanwhile, centered on bringing back economic health and confidence and focused on creating a market-oriented and socially-responsible economy. Despite these achievements, Aquino's presidency was not smooth-sailing as she had to face series of coup attempts against her administration and destructive natural calamities and disasters until the end of her term in 1992.
      Succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos as President in 1992, Aquino returned to private life although she remained active in the public eye, constantly voicing her views and opinions on the pressing political issues in the country. In 2008, Aquino was diagnosed with colon cancer and after a one-year battle with the disease, died on August 1, 2009.


Source: Wikipedia

Sunday, October 24, 2010

Filipino Presidents

Ferdinand E. Marcos
18th President of the Philippines
(1917 – 1989; president 1965 – 1986); 
10th President of the Third Republic 
“Challenge To Bravery”



“With sincerity in my heart is my desire to realize my long time dream; to uplift from poverty the Filipino people through a government with honest, sincere service and not selfish, and a society with only one goal – the fulfillment of dreams of a man.”


         Ferdinand E. Marcos was born in the town of Sarrat in the province of Ilocos Norte on September 11, 1917 and was baptized with the name Emmanuel Ferdinand Edralin Marcos. His father, Mariano Marcos is a lawyer-teacher who became a politician. His father became the representative of Ilocos Norte at the Lower House in 1925. His mother, Josefa Quetulio Edralin, is a teacher at a public school.
         Just like any other children, Ferdinand’s first teacher was his mother. His mother taught him the importance of time. Her mother also reminded in the young mind of Ferdinand the love of books and its importance to a man. From his father, Ferdinand learned boxing, swimming, arm wrestling and shooting. Ferdinand and his brother Pacifico was always brought by their father to his political campaign. Even as a child Ferdinand was trained and used to strive hard to be on top on all aspects. He never had been happy to place second only. It became a habit to Ferdinand once the book are given to them at school, he immediately read them and memorize. For that, it never gave a chance to his classmates to outrank him in class. Ferdinand got the highest grade on their graduation from elementary and pursues secondary education at the University of the Philippines. In law, even if he did not obtain the highest grade upon graduation, he, however, topped the civil service examination in 1939.
         As a cadet official, Ferdinand always topped the handling of firearms. His first Medal of Excellence in Military Science was given by Gen. Douglas MacArthur. Ferdinand always garnered medals as a student. He is good in public speaking and inter-school debate. Ferdinand never failed the hope of his loved ones.
         Ferdinand joined the Armed Forces of the Philippines on November 15, 1941. Just like any soldier, Ferdinand played his own role in the Philippine war to be free from the hands of the enemy. At the start of the World War II, Marcos was assigned at the 21st Lightning Division of USAFFE with a rank of Lieutenant. Gen. Mateo Capinpin first noticed the bravery in war of Ferdinand when he fought at the Hacienda Abucay in Bataan on January 15, 1942. Due to valor of Marcos, he obtained the Silver Star Award. One of the medals received by Marcos is Distinguished Service Cross, the second highest and Gold Cross Medal with two bronze leaves for fighting in dangerous battles of Mt. Natib and Mt. Samat, respectively. Many believed he possess amulets the reason why he did not suffer any harm but he denied the rumors. He was also imprisoned at Fort Santiago and was punished by the Japanese.Together with brother Pacifico, Marcos created a guerilla they called Maharlika or Nobleman at a cost of 8,700 pesos. The Maharlika guerilla helped a lot to successfully carry out the secrets of the movement in Luzon.
         In 1948, Marcos decided to just continue his profession as a lawyer but he was persuaded by President Roxas to try his luck in politics. He followed the advice of President Roxas and he became successful. In three successive periods, he became the representative of Ilocos Norte in Congress. Marcos became a senator in 1960 until he run for president. In a hotly contested election of 1965, Marcos was unanimously elected by the people to the highest position that can be bestowed by Filipino people. Despite the anguish and psychological torture he and his clan suffer from his political rivals, he just consider it as a “Challenge to Bravery.”
         In his speech to the people, Marcos explained his definition of “Challenge to Bravery.” Excerpt from his speech when he sworn into office, he said the following:
        "Today, the battle is not intensely poetic and bloody but equally valuable to the challenge of our ancestors. We observed that it seems now that we slowly losing our soul, our honor and bravery….
        I call upon you for us to jointly make the law rule us. For those who violate the law, I will implement the due punishment to the best of my capacity. But this duty is not only mine but it is also for you and for all of us….
        As I’ve said and I keep on saying that our nation can become great again. This will be my mission and now that this opportunity it is bestowed upon me by the Almighty God, I am hoping that our mission will be successful.
       We should awaken the heroism innate in an individual. I am not asking for only one among you that could be a hero. I want that all of you, all of us, will become heroes.
       This is my dream. For voting me, it seems like you destined to me my duty. Let’s go and make our dreams come true.”
       President Marcos wife, Imelda Marcos has always been compared to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis for her timeless and classic beauty and Marie Antoinette of France for her lavish lifestyle. They have three children namely Imee, Irene and Ferdinand who is popularly nicknamed Bongbong, who is at present, a senator.
       President Marcos died in 1989.




Major World Events During Marcos’ Administration


Middle East In six-day war, Israel occupies Arab lands in Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, 1967
Nigeria. In outbreak of civil war, Eastern region declares its independence as Biafra, 1967
Czechoslovakia. Soviet forces invade Czechoslovakia to suppress liberal government, 1968
Vietnam. Peace talks to end war begin in Paris, France, 1968
Rhodesia declares itself a republic, 1970
India and Pakistan go to war, 1971
China admitted to United Nations, 1971
Northern Ireland Britain imposes direct rule, 1971
South Vietnam. Last United States ground troops leave, 1973
Israel attacked by Egyptian and Syrian troops in Yom Kippur War, 1973
India suspends constitutional rights, 1976
Middle East Palestine Liberation Organization recognized by United Nations, 1974
Ethiopia Haile Selassie deposed as emperor, 1974
Papua New Guinea gains independence, 1975
Spain. Juan Carlos becomes king, 1975
Egypt. Abrogates its 1971 friendship treaty with the Soviet Union, 1976
Panama. Panama Canal treaty ratified by United States, 1978
China and United States restore diplomatic relations, 1979
Iran. Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile to declare the country an Islamic republic, 1979
Middle East Peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel, 1979
Iran. United States embassy seized by militants, 53 American hostages taken, 1979
Afghanistan invaded by Soviet troops, 1979
Iran American hostages freed, 1981
Falkland Islands invaded by Argentine troops, 1982
Grenada invaded by United States troops, 1983
Hong Kong China and Britain agree on eventual return of Hong Kong to China, 1984

Ferdinand E. Marcos Images

President Marcos with his family hearing mass





President Ferdinand E. Marcos while doing his duties.



President Marcos and son Bongbong salute together as Boy Scouts.

Ferdinand E. Marcos Images

The Official Portrait of the First Family, President Marcos and His First Lady, Imelda Marcos together with their children, Imee, Irene and Bong bong








In the two pictures that can be seen, President Marcos is having a leisure. Golf is one of the favorite sport of President Marcos.



Even while having a haircut, President Marcos will not run out of interviews





In all the duties of President Marcos, his son Bongbong has all a part just like in the picture

Ferdinand E. Marcos Images

In confirming his son as a Boy Scout, President Marcos is beaming with pride in conferring to Bongbong the confirmation in an event at De La Salle College.





President Marcos is still fulfilling all his duties as a father. In the picture taken with his son swimming.






The President and his son while having a fervent prayer in a solemn mass







President Marcos while conferring the honor of "Doctor of Laws" (Honoris Causa) from President Teodoro Evangelista of the Far Eastern University.








President Marcos while having his communion








Friday, October 22, 2010

Filipino Presidents

Diosdado P. Macapagal
(1910 – 1997; president 1961-1965); 
9th President of the Philippines
Poor Boy From Lubao


“If a president solely rely his leadership on the desire to be reelected, he is just a common politician who desires nothing but self progress that may lead the nation to damnation.”


       Diosdado P. Macapagal was born in a nipa hut in the village of San Nicolas in the town of Lubao in Pampanga on September 28, 1910. His parents were Urbano Macapagal and Romana Pangan. It was said that the Macapagal clan were one of the poorest and deprived families in the province of Pampanga. “I remember when I was a child,” Diosdado once reminisced, “I have no playmates. I am alone playing in the rugged street of our village. My clothes were torn and worn out. I never dare to come near the high fence of the big houses.
       Dado, as he is fondly called, went to school in Lubao Elementary School barefooted. He finished with the highest honor in that school in 1925. He almost missed their graduation. He has no shoes or dress to wear. Thanks to a generous and philanthropic neighbor, Don Valentin Arrastia, Dado was able to buy new white dress and pants. He also bought a pair of shoes. He continued his studies at San Fernando, Pampang, 40 kilometers away from Lubao. His mother worked as a cashier to add income to the family. Dado, on the other hand, helped in feeding the pigs that were raised by her mother. In 1929, Dado finished fourth in their class.
       Dado worked as an employee in the Bureau of Lands in 1930. He studied at night at the University of the Philippines. In 1933, it was found out in the university clinic that Dado has a weak body. He was advised to go home and rest first. While at rest recuperating, Dado wrote and created plays and operetta that were popular at the time. He wrote it in Tagalog language and Kapampangan. His small savings in writing were spent for his return to pursue his studies in Manila. He enrolled at the Philippine Law School. For the second time, Dado was forced to stop his studies for reason that they don’t have money to spend for his schooling. He was fortunate again when a wealthy Kapampangan, Don Honorio Ventura offered help. He spent money for the schooling of Dado at the University of Santo Tomas. He obtained the highest grade at the bar examination of 1936. He became a brilliant lawyer in 1947.
       While excelling at law, Dado served as associate lawyer in the law firm of Ross, Lawrence and Selph in Manila. During the Japanese occupation, Dado did not suffer little difficulties. However when peace returns, he created his own law firm together with Punsalan and Yabut. In 1948, he started making connection with President Elpidio Quirino. He was appointed by President Quirino to help manage the government claim over Turtle Islands.
        He started working in the government in 1949 when he was elected as congressman and was reelected in 1953. He was elected as Vice President of the Philippines in 1957. After four years, Macapagal became the president of our country.
        Becoming a president, Macapagal has a strong belief that “one of the more undesirable in the present democracy in the Philippines is the excessive desire of a sitting President to do everything to ensure reelection. No one among them who served who doesn’t possess such desire. No one ever think about the future of the nation only. The usual and only desire is his selfish place in history.” Because of this opinion, Macapagal made promise and explicitly declare his refusal to seek reelection. In a speech in the airwaves he said the following: “It was strengthened by our experience, that a President, after being elected and took office, is even more thinking of how he can be reelected than how he can improve his service to the nation. It is mandated by the people’s welfare that an individual voted to the highest position bestowed by the voting citizen should spend all his time in uplifting the condition of the nation. However, if it was forced that a President can only be elected once, he has no other wants but to leave a legacy to his country with an incomparable service to its countrymen by the ability bestowed upon him by God.”
        However through the years, President Macapagal might have thought that four years isn’t enough to finish all his plans for the country most especially his Five Year Socio-Economic Program. Supposedly, due to his worry that he cannot fulfill his promise to the country, he changed his mind. He again runs for presidency. Maybe because due to his failure of keeping his promise, instead of being reelected in 1965, he was easily defeated by his toughest opponent, Ferdinand E. Marcos.
        President Macapagal first wife is Purita de la Rosa. When his first wife died, he married again. His companions when he stepped on the Malacañan Palace is his second wife, Evangelina Macaraeg and their four children named Arturo, Maria, Cielo, Gloria and Diosdado. Gloria went on to follow her father footsteps and became the 14th President of the Philippines becoming the first father – daughter tandem to be elected to the highest position of the land. President Diosdado Macapagal died on April 21, 1997.






Major World Events During Macapagal’s Administration

France, Algeria end seven-year-old conflict, Nigeria wins independence, 1962
Cuba. War between United States & Soviet Union narrowly averted during Cuban missile crisis, 1962
Southeast Asia. Communists win much of Laos. United States increases military aid to South Vietnam , 1962
Republic of Congo United Nations troops end secession of Katanga Province, 1963
Vietnam North Vietnam attacks United States ships in the Gulf of Tonkin, 1964
Dominican Republic. The United States sends in Marines to protect lives during revolt, 1965

Diosdado P. Macapagal Images

The facial and hand gestures of President Macapagal signifies victory



President Macapagal while discussing some national issues.

Diosdado P. Macapagal Images


Picture taken of President Macapagal on a conference with the Metropolitan city mayors. Beside him on his right is Manila mayor, Antonio J. Villegas



In the picture is President Macapagal and Senate President Ferdinand E. Marcos before they separate ways and became opponents in the presidential race.





President Macapagal is pleased in shaking hands to an old woman he met in Cagayan.





President Macapagal kissing wife on her face.





In the picture of the First Family were Gloria, First Lady Eva Macapagal, the President, Arturo and Diosdado, Jr.

Filipino Presidents

Carlos P. Garcia
(1896 - 1971 ; president 1957-1959); 
8th President of the Philippines
Exemplary Politician



“A nation does not live on physical strength alone, and it will bring no good for a nation if in strengthening the living conditions of the people will endanger the spiritual condition.”

      Carlos P. Garcia was born in a small town of Talibon, Bohol on November 4, 1896. His parents, both native of Talibon, were Policronio Garcia and Ambrosia Polistico. At an early age, Carlos has shown an unusual leadership skill. He is always at the top of his class from elementary until he finished law at the Philippine Law School. Carlos studied at Talibon Elementary School and pursued his secondary education in Cebu. He started studying law at Silliman University in Dumaguete, Negros Oriental and continued it in Manila. He is one of the top ten passers of the civil service examination in 1923. At the College of Law, Carlos has the privilege of studying for free under the Malcolm Scholarship. Carlos was considered as “Prince of Cebuano Poets.”
     Garcia started government service as a teacher in a public school. After two and a half year, he joined politics. He was elected as representative in Congress of the third district of Bohol for six years. To grant the favor of his fellow Boholanos, he ran for governor and won. He remained as governor of Bohol for 9 years. Garcia became senator from 1941 until 1953 except for the years when the Philippines was under the Japanese. As senator, Garcia is one of the exceptional lawmaker from 1949 to 1953 service without a gap. He became the vice presidential candidate of the Nacionalista party from 1947 to 1953.
     At the end of his term as a senator, Garcia was elected Vice President of the Philippines. He was also appointed by President Magsaysay as Secretary of Foreign Affairs department. After the sudden death of President Magsaysay, Vice President Garcia took the oath of office as President of the Philippines. In the presidential election of 1957, Garcia won and continue enjoying the presidency to its full term. His toughest rival in the election is Jose Yulo of Iloilo, Secretary of Finance.
     The more dangerous years in the life of President Garcia has gone through the dark years of the Japanese occupation. Due to his non-cooperation with Philippine Puppet Republic, during the Japanese regime, there is a reward to whoever could lead to his capture, dead or alive. In three different instances, he was in danger if almost captured but fortunately, he survived and evaded capture like once, together with his father, Garcia has their ship been damaged while they are escaping. Another instance, Garcia was planned to be liquidated by other guerillas which is the arch nemesis of their group.
     As president, Garcia gave a priority attention to the ignorance of the society to the kind of morality we have now. President Garcia said: “We have to strengthen our morality. Our moral standard should be fortified… The divided and fallen nation which once is very powerful will prove that in our livelihood development, if it does not depend on morality, will only serve as destroyer of a nation. I have a strong belief that a strong character of a nation is the most effective defense against the challenge of communism.”
    On his inaugural speech, Carlos P. Garcia said: “A livelihood development of a nation does not depend on government alone, in the end; the responsibility to strengthen the livelihood of a nation is much dependent on its citizen. It is more dependent in the hands of the people because of their conditions and experience in trade, has the ability to be the leader in giving opportunities to the needy.”
    President Garcia’s wife is Leonila Dimataga of Opon, Cebu. They have one daughter named Linda. We could not deny the fact as a former president, he is always been asked for advice by government officials who succeeded him. President Carlos P. Garcia died of a heart attack on June 14, 1971 at the age of 75.

Major World Events During Garcia’s Administration

France. De Gaulle becomes premier, 1958
Egypt. United Arab Republic formed by merger of Egypt and Syria, 1958
Africa. Among former colonies to gain independence are Nigeria, Somalia and the Congo, 1960
Soviet Union launches first man into space, 1961
Cuba defeats rebel invaders, 1961

Carlos P. Garcia Images

President Garcia loves gardening. This picture was taken inside his garden. Behind him is his orchids fully taken cared because he is a green thumb individual.


President Garcia while having a speech

Carlos P. Garcia Images

The President and Mrs. Garcia in an event at the palace in honor of the visiting United States President Lyndon Baines Johnson and his wife, First Lady Clauda Alta Taylor "Lady Bird" Johnson



One of President Garcia's favorite past time is playing billiards.



President Garcia is happily talking with the press.



President Garcia while playing chess with US Navy Captain Richard Steere. The picture was taken aboard USS Saint Paul.




President Garcia gives worth to the "honor in labor".

Filipino Presidents

Ramon F. Magsaysay
(1907 – 1957; president 1953 – 1957); 
7th President of the Philippines
President of the Common Masses



“The only reward I desire for my service to our country is the trust given me by our countrymen.”


     Ramon helped his father in their foundry and this maybe the reason for his well-built physique. Ramon finished his elementary education at Castillejos and continue his studies at Zambales Academy in San Narciso, Zambales. The required four years of his secondary education was finished by Ramon in only three years.
Ramon went to Manila in 1927 and enrolled at the College of Engineering at the University of the Philippines. While studying, Ramon is working so that he will no longer rely on the money that came from his parents. He believed that he could take care of himself. But soon however, Ramon got sick. According to the doctor who examined him, he got contracted with tuberculosis and immediately returned home. He got enough rest and eats nutritious food that will boost his energy. When he returns to Manila for school, he realized that he did not pass. He forgot to inform the school that he needs enough rest for his illness. Ramon decided to take commerce as his course to pursue his studies instead of engineering. He enrolled at Jose Rizal College. While studying, he worked as a driver to the owner of the house he is staying. He graduated in 1930. Although Ramon finished commerce, he never forgot his passion on machineries. He became a good mechanic. When he finished his studies, he became the manager of a workshop of Try-Tran Company, a mass transport company. His wage is 80 pesos a month.
     During the war, Ramon joined the guerrilla movement and has the rank of captain. He became the eye of guerrillas. Magsaysay always reminds his comrades about the uncertainty of a successful campaign. He often said:
     “My brothers, you already know the cause of our power to bond like this. We are fighting now not only for our own freedom but also the freedom of our children and our children’s children.” As the leader of the troop, Magsaysay was loved and respected by his men. Because of his sincere and loyal service, his troop has become faithful to him as well. Once the Japanese offered the Filipino people 100,000 pesos to anyone who could lead them to locate Magsaysay, then he said “People can do nothing but to point me so they can obtain such money… but they never do it. I’d proven it before that if you want to be successful; you need the people to side with you.”
       Magsaysay left the movement in February, 1946. In the election of 1946, he became a representative of Zambales in Congress. He was reelected in 1949. On September 1, 1950, Magsaysay was appointed by President Quirino as secretary of the National Defense department. Magsaysay regained the trust of the people to the Armed Forces of the Philippines. His ability as a leader boost the morale of the men in uniform.
      On November 10, 1953, as a symbol of gratitude and worth given by his countrymen to him, Magsaysay was elected President of the Philippines. As president of the country, Malacañan, was opened to the public. For the first time, the general public can freely visit the palace.
      As president he once said: “My only standard of service to the government is austerity in spending, and honesty in service that is joined by honor of service to the nation. We need to bring to the people the real meaning of the word democracy…”
     At his visit in a wet market in Manila one time, President Magsaysay saddened by what he saw and said: “I had been a part of the struggles of the men and women who are present here today. I know that for them, to live is a never ending struggle to be comfortable from dawn till dusk. I understand the feeling they have in their heart and I feel the burden on their shoulders. Now that I am in position to help them, I will do my best to ease their burden… I have a strong faith that a man, no matter how small, has a right to feed his stomach and shelter his head.”
      President Magsaysay’s wife is Luz Banzon of Bataan who bore him three children namely Teresita, Milagros and Ramon. Ramon is a former representative and senator. It’s a great loss for every Filipino the early death of President Magsaysay. On his trip to Cebu, one of the poorest provinces in the country, the plane he is riding crashed at Mt. Manungal on March 17, 1957.
      The Ramon Magsaysay Award instituted in 1957 and often considered as Asia's Nobel Prize was named after him.





Major World Events During Magsaysay’s Administration

Vietnam. Truce ends eight years of warfare, 1954
Soviet Union. Stalin dies, 1953; first man-made earth satellites (Sputniks I and II) launched, 1957

Ramon Magsaysay Images

President Ramon Magsaysay, the President of Common Masses, who believes that "a citizen who has inadequacies in life should have bounty in the blessings of the law."


Picture taken of President Ramon Magsaysay having bestowed the title "Doctor of Laws in Humanities, Honoris Causa."

Ramon Magsaysay Images

Rare picture taken of the political rivals. Seen in photos with President Magsaysay are Senate President, Eulogio "Amang"Rodriguez, former President Laurel and Senator Claro M. Recto whie having fun.


One of the pictures taken while the President is talking with government officials.



The "Triangle of Nationalism": Senator Claro M. Recto, former President Laurel and President Ramon Magsaysay



President Magsaysay together with the two greater known fortress of democracy in the country: President Laurel and Senator Claro M. Recto.




The President and First Lady, Mrs. Luz Banzon Magsaysay in their dress native to the Philippines

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