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Thursday, February 25, 2016

Other Philippine Geography and History Trivia

Bagobo Tribe during the American occupation 

Bridge of Spain, Manila 1899 


These are some more tidbits of trivia:

Different Stages of Philippines Republic:

First Republic - Kawit, Cavite - June 12, 1898
Second Republic - Japanese Puppet Republic - September 25, 1943
Third Republic - July 4, 1946 - Manuel Roxas as President
Fourth Republic - September 21, 1972 - Bagong Lipunan (New Society)
Fifth Republic - June 30, 1981, New Republic

Bacolor, Pampanga - made by the Spaniards as the capital of the Philippines in 1762 when Manila was captured by the British and ruled the Philippines for two years.

Pantaleon Perez - other name of Juan de la Cruz Palariz, the leader of the second Pangasinan revolt

Tarlac - melting pot of Luzon because it is the home of province of different ethno-linguistic groups

Mindoro - named as the island of Mai by the Chinese historian, Chau-Ju-Kua in 1225.

Cotabato - Rice Granary of Mindanao

Nueva Caceres - former name of Naga City. Founded in 1593 as one of the oldest settlements in the Philippines

Catanduanes - known as the Island of the Eastern Sea and Land of the Howling Winds because of its location which is directly on the path of the typhoon belt.

Romblon - known for its rich marble deposits of commercial value

Calbayog City - city of Western Samar which got its name from a tree called "Bayog" from which "cal" (Spanish word for lime) was extracted and used for church-building

Agusan - got its name from the word "agus" meaning flow of water from the Agusan River. It was once a part of the old province of Surigao

Bukidnon - province whose name means people of the mountains from the tribe which inhabited the plateaus of Northern Mindanao. The country's top producer of pineapple.

Batanes, Camiguin, Palawan and Siquijor - considered as the most beautiful island provinces in the Philippines

Rio Grande de Mindanao - second largest river in the Philippines

Mount Diwata - found in the province of Surigao del Sur

Manuel Roxas - founded the Philippines Herald, the first Filipino daily newspaper in English

Turrumba Festival - religious fiesta at Pakil, Laguna in which devotees fall on their knees or stumbles as they follow the images of Our Lady of Sorrows, Patroness of Pakil, in a religious procession around the town

Sta. Maria, Calamiugan, Cagayan - where the oldest bell in the Philippines is found

Paradise Island - scenic spot found in the province of Tarlac

Caves of Bathala - an attraction in the province of Marinduque

Beaches in Leyte are named after different colors - red, blue, white etc.

La Naval de Manila - candlelit procession held in honor of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary to commemorate the Filipino - Spanish victory over the Dutch forces in October 3, 1646  Battle of Manila. Held every 2nd Sunday of October.

Nuestra Señora del Pilar (Our Lady of Pillar) - Patroness of Zamboanga City, known for her miraculous intervention against raids and foreign invasions during the Spanish regime.

Juan Ronquillo - Commander of the Spanish fleet which defeated the Dutch fleet under Admiral Jan Derickson Lam at the Battle of Playa Honda

Governor Gomez Perez Dasmariñas - Spanish Governor-General who was treacherously killed by the Chinese pirates in Sulphor Point, Batangas on October 25, 1593

Governor Fernando de Bustamante - Spanish Governor General who was murdered by the friars and some residents in Manila as a result of his imprisonment of Archbishop Francisco Cuesta.

Manila Grand Opera House - where the first Philippine Assembly was inaugurated on October 16, 1907

Liwasang Bagong Lipunan  - the name of Rizal Park under the Marcos Administration

Kiangan - town north of Baguio City where General Tomoyuki Yamashita surrendered his army to the Filipino-American forces

Juan de Camus - discovered the image of the Holy Infant Jesus in an unburned Cebuano home

Roxas City - second Spanish settlement in the Philippines

Fort Pilar - former name of Zamboanga

Melbourne, Australia - where General MacArthur made his promise that he "shall return" to liberate the Philippines from the Japanese

Negros - first provincial government established by the Americans

Second Philippines Commission or the Taft Commission - established the public school system with English as medium of instruction

OSROX Mission - independent mission composed of Osmeña and Roxas which brought the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill

Maura Law of 1893 - gave the citizens of a municipality with not less than 1,000 taxpayers, the right to elect the members of their municipal council to make laws for their municipality

Fr. Mariano Gil of Tondo - discovered the secrets of the Katipunan as told by Teodoro Patiño to his sister Honoria

Governor General Narciso Claveria - ordered the correction of the calendar in the year 1844.

Battle of Besang Pass- longest battle in the liberation of the Philippines fought by the Filipino guerillas and American soldiers against the Japanese during World War II where President Marcos was considered as the most decorated hero.

Fort Bonifacio, Taguig - became the new name of Camp Murphy which headquarters the Philippine Army

Cesar Bengson - first Filipino to be elected to the World Court or International Court of Justice

Dr. Jesus Tamesis - first Filipino to be elected President of the World Medical Association

Caballo Bay - where relics of a wrecked Spanish Galleon were found

The significance of number 17 in Philippine History:

Our country was discovered by Ferdinand Magellan on March 17, 1521
Luzon is the 17th largest island in the world
There are 17 Articles in our 1973 Constitution
It took 17 months for the delegates of the 1971 Constitutional Convention to draft our 1973 Constitutional Convention.
January 17 is our Constitution Day
Our 1973 Constitution was announced ratified on January 17, 1973 by President Marcos
Martial Law was lifted on January 17, 1981.
Pope John Paul II visited the Philippines on February 17, 1981.
President Ramon Magsaysay died on a plane crash on March 17, 1957.

Authors or Writers of Different Philippine Constitutions:

        NAME                                             Author / Writer                                    Date

Biak-na-Bato Constitution               Isabelo Artacho and Felix Ferrer                      1897

Makabulos Constitution                   Gen. Francisco Makabulos                               1898

Constitution of Aguinaldo's
Dictatorial Government                   Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista                            1898

Constitution of Aguinaldo's
Revolutionary Government              Apolinario Mabini                                            1898

Malolos Constitution                       Felipe Calderon                                                 1898

National Constitution of
Philippine Islands                            Cayetano Arellano                                             1900

Constitution of the Free State
of 1900                                         California Members of the
                                                    Anti-Imperialist League of America                      1900

Constitution for a Free State
of the Philippines                            Pedro Paterno                                                     1900

Constitution of the Tagalog
Republic                                        Macario Sakay                                   November 12, 1901  -
                                                                                                                  March 25, 1902

Philippine Bill of 1902                             -                                                                 1902

Constitution of the
Rizaline Republic                            Artemio Ricarte                                          March 31, 1913

Jones Law of 1916                                                                                                      1916

1935 Constitution                           1934 Constitutional Convention                          1935

1972  Constitution                          1972 Constitutional Convention                          1972

1986 Constitution                           1986 Constitutional Convention                          1986

Antonio de Pigafetta - historian or chronicler of Magellan's expedition
Fr. Andres de Urdaneta - historian or chronicler of Legaspi's expedition

Hudhud and Alim - epic poems of the Ifugaos
Biag ni Lam-ang - epic poems of the Ilocanos
Handiong - epic poem of the Bicolanos
Hinilawod and Humadapnon - epic poems of the Panay Island's Ati people
Bantugan, Indarapatra and Sulayman, Bidasari and Parang-Sabil - epic poems of the Muslims
Darangan - epic poem of the Maranaws

Islas de Ladrones or Island of Thieves in English - name given by Magellan to what is now Marianas Islands because some of the natives stole one of his boats.

Tendaya - former name of Leyte

Cumplase - right of the Governor-General to suspend the operation of a Royal decree or order relative to the Philippines if in his opinion the said order or decree would not be beneficial to the administration of the country

Indulto de Comercio - right given to Spanish government officials to engage in trade

Xylography - first printing press in the Philippines introduced by the Dominicans

Fr. Francisco Blancas de San Jose - introduced the movable type of printing press called typography in 1602

Admiral Van Noort - leader of the first Dutch fleet which fought against the Spanish squadron headed by Antonio de Morga in the 1600 Battle of Manila Bay.

Tribute - paid by Filipinos who are above 16 yrs. and below 60 years old to the Spanish government. Abolished in 1884 and replaced by cedula personal (residence certificate class A).

1811 - last voyage of the Galleon Trade

Situado - annual financial aid sent to the Philippines by the Mexican government to save the Philippine colonial government from bankruptcy (average of about P250,000)

Sinibaldo de Mas - sent by the King of Spain to study the commercial condition of the Philippines and has recommended the abolition of the tobacco monopoly and the opening of more ports for foreign trade

1882 - abolition of tobacco monopoly

1873 - telegraph was introduced in the Philippines

1890 - telephone was introduced in the Philippines. First telephone service outside Manila was in Iloilo in 1891.

Antillean - type of house introduced by the Spaniards in the Philippines which was either rectangular or square, made of first class wood such as narra, ipil or molave

Magalat - led the Cagayan revolt in 1596

Bancao - chieftain of Limasawa who led the Leyte revolt in 1622

Pedro Ladia - native of Borneo who led the revolt in Malolos, Bulacan

Juan Sumuroy - led the 1649 revolt in Palapag, Samar because of forced labor

Francisco Maniago - led the Pampanga Revolt in 1660

Andres Malong - led the 1660 Pangasinan Revolt and proclaimed himself "King of Pangasinan"

Juan de la Cruz Palariz - led the 1762 Pangasinan Revolt

Apolinario de la Cruz ( or Hermano Pule) - founder of Cofradia de San Jose, a religious brotherhood, who led a religious revolt in Lukban, Quezon in 1840.  Called as the "King of the Tagalogs" by the people of his province.

Rafael de Izquierdo - Spanish governor general who replaced Carlos Maria de la Torre in 1871 and ruled the Philippines with a cross in one hand and a sword in the other.

Lodge Revolucion - Filipino  masonic lodge founded by Lopez Jaena in Barcelona, Spain in 1889

Governor General Ramon Blanco - placed under Martial Law the first eight provinces which rose up in arms against Spain - Cavite, Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija - through a decree issued on August 30, 1896

Governor General Fermin Jaudenes - made a secret agreement with American Commodore Dewey and General Merritt that he would surrender Manila to the Americans after staging a mock battle.

Marcha Filipina Magdalo - original title of the Official March of the Philippines composed by Julian Felipe which later became the Philippine National Anthem

Lazaro Segovia - a Spaniard who helped the Americans to capture Aguinaldo at Palanan, Isabela

Spooner Amendment - basis of the civil government in the Philippines and sponsored by United States senator John Spooner

Cuban Constitution - copied by Artacho and Ferrer for the Biak-na-Bato Constitution

Sulu Sea - the country's most productive fishing ground

June 24, 1571 - City of Manila was formally established

Sioco - Chinese pirate and Limahong's military commander who attacked Manila and killed Martin de Goiti, Legaspi's Master of Camp

November 19, 1595 - Manila was designated as the capital of the Philippines

Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santissimo Rosario (College of the Most Holy Rosary) - old name of the University of Santo Tomas

Franciscan nuns - established the first convent in the Philippines

Paragua Island - former name of Palawan

1698 - encomienda system was abolished

Archbishop Manuel A. Rojo - acting governor general of Manila who surrendered Manila to the British

Francis Drake - commander of the British Fleet who acted as Governor General of Manila on  October 10, 1762 after the Spanish defeat in the Battle of Manila Bay.

December 25, 1762 - Known as the Red Christmas of 1762 when the Filipino and Spanish churchgoers were killed by Chinese rebels on Christmas eve in a church in Guagua, Pampanga

Simon de Anda y Salazar - regained the city of Manila from the British

1767 - establishment of the first postal service system in the Philippines

July 12, 1767 - Jesuits were expelled from the Philippines on orders of King Charles III

1782 - Royal decree was issued establishing schools all over the Philippines

February 14, 1810 - Royal decree was issued providing for Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes

February 3, 1827 - establishment of the first "Obras Pias," or insurance company

Colgante Bridge - former name of the Quezon bridge connecting Manila proper to the district of Quiapo

December 19, 1863 - primary education for children from 7 to 12 years old was made compulsory

Lope K. Santos - known as the "Father of Pilipino grammar  (Balarilang Pilipino).

Official Gazette - first American newspaper in the Philippines

March 26, 1920 - Philippine Flag was adopted as the official flag of the Philippines

KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas) - single political party allowed to exist during the Japanese Occupation

September 2, 1945 - formal surrender of Japan to the Allied Powers

Los Baños, Laguna - where General Yamashita was hanged as a war criminal on February 23, 1946

November 8, 1947 - first local elections held in the Philippines

May 14, 1935 - first national referendum was held to ratify the Philippine Constitution

Davaokuo - Japanese community in Davao in the 1930s

Kempeitai - Japanese military police during World War II

Kura - most feared Japanese word during World War II

Col. Macario Peralta - leader of the guerillas in Panay during the Japanese Occupation

Kalibo War Bulletin - most widely distributed guerilla newspaper in Panay during World War II

Ang Tigbatas - guerilla newspaper published by Tomas Confesor which survived the war and became the principal reading matter of the people in Panay.

First Battle of Philippine Seas - took place near the Marianas Islands on June 19 - 20, 1944

Gustavus von Overbeck and Alfred Dent - owners of the North Borneo Company to whom the Sultan of Sulu rented the North Borneo (Sabah)

USS Maine - American warship whose sinking at Havana, Cuba, caused the Spanish-American War

Henry Allen Cooper - United States Congressman who sponsored the Philippine Bill of 1902 which was established the Philippine Assembly. He defended his bill by reciting Rizal's poem "Mi Ultimo Adios".

Civil Service Act (Act No. 5) - law enacted by the Philippine Commission on September 19, 1900 which required all prospective government employees to take a competitive examination that would give them eligibility.

September 29, 1855 - when the Port of Iloilo was opened to foreign trade

Sugar - first export of Iloilo to Australia

Pen Names used by the Katipuneros in writing to the Kalayaan, the Katipunan Official Newspaper:

1. Bonifacio - Agap-ito Bagumbayan
2. Jacinto - Dimas-Ilaw
3. Dr. Pio Valenzuela - Madlang-Away

Cagayan - the most rebellious region in the Philippines during the early years of the Spanish rule

Basi Revolt - caused by the government's order prohibiting the Ilocanos to make their native wine "basi"

El Filibusterismo - novel by Rizal dedicated in memory of the three martyred priests: Burgos, Gomez, Zamora

Four Martyrs of Katipunan,  Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite, Twelve Martyrs of Bicol and Nineteen Martyrs of Aklan - the first martyrs of Philippines Revolution

General Martin Delgado - commanded the Visayan patriots in the defense of Iloilo City against the Spanish and American forces. He became Iloilo's first provincial governor in 1901.

Teodoro Sandiko - the oldest delegate to the Philippine Constitutional Convention of 1935

Wenceslao Q. Vinzon - youngest delegate to the Philippine Constitutional Convention of 1935

Gregorio Perfecto - signed the approved Philippine Constitution of 1935 with his own blood

Tomas Cabili of Lanao - the only delegate who voted NO to the approved Constitution of 1935

Carmen Planas - first woman Councilor of Manila

Elisa R. Ochoa - first woman to become a member of the Congress of the Philippines

September 17, 1935 - national election for the officials of the Philippine Commonwealth

Capt. Jesus Villamor - first Filipino pilot to win honors for his fight against the Japanese planes over the skies in Batangas.

Ramon Magsaysay - first Philippine president to wear Barong Tagalog in a Presidential inauguration

American soldiers - first English teachers of the Filipinos 

Order of Sikatuna - highest civilian award given by the Philippine government to a foreign national for a worthy and outstanding services rendered to the Filipino people

Mai - name given to the Philippines by the Chinese traders meaning "Land of Barbarians"

Y'ami isle - northernmost point in the Philippines

Saluag isle - southernmost point in the Philippines

Sierra Madre mountains - longest mountain range in the Philipines

Cagayan Valley - largest valley in the Philippines

Cagayan River - longest river in the Philippines

Laguna de Bay - largest lake in the Philippines

Dowell Pearl - world's largest pearl found in the waters of Palawan

Basi - Ilocano wine
Pangasi - Visayan wine
Lambanog - Tagalog wine
Tapuy - Igorot wine

Kumintang - Tagalog love dance
Binaylan - Manobo courtship dance
Sagayan - Maranaw war dance
Kinnoton - Ilocano ants' dance
Uya-uy - Ifugao courtship dance
Tadek - Tinggian love dance
Kandingan - Muslim wedding dance

Buglas - former name of Negros
Himal-us - former name of Guimaras

Ancient Gods and Goddesses:

Idianalo - Tagalog goddess of agriculture
Sidapa - Visayan god of death
Apolaki - Pangasinan war god
Dal-lang - Ilocano goddess of beauty
Kidul - Kalinga god of thunder
Darago - Bagobo war god
Kolyog - Ifugao god of earthquakes
Lalahon - Visayan goddess of volcanoes

Maganito - sacrifices offered to the anitos of the ancient Filipinos

Katalona or Babaylan -  priest or priestess of the ancient Filipinos

Odom - ancient amulet of the ancient Filipinos that could make its possessor invisible to the human eye

Wiga - ancient charm that enable any person to cross a river without getting wet

Ancient Names Of The Ancient Visayan Calendar:

Days of the Week

Monday - Tigburokad
Tuesday - Dumasun
Wednesday - Dukotdukot
Thursday - Baylobaylo
Friday - Danghus
Saturday - Hinguthingot
Sunday - Ligidligid


January - Ulalong
February - Dagangkahoy
March - Dagangbulan
April - Kiling
May - Himabuyan
June - Kabay
July - Hidapdapon
August - Lubadlubad
September - Kangurolsol
October - Bagyobagyo
November - Panglut nga Diutay
December - Panglut nga Daku

Tumunoh - Ifugao calendar keeper

piloncitos - ancient coins of our ancestors

Sri Vijaya and Madjapahit Empires - through these empires, India's cultural influences reached the Philippines

Sulu and Visayas - main centers of Sri Vijaya influence in the Philippines

Abu Bakr - first Muslim sultan of Jolo

Sharif Kabungsuan - first Muslim sultan of Mindanao

Pacific Ocean - was named by Magellan "pacific" because of its calm waters

Watering Place of Good Signs - name given by Magellan to Homonhon because they found some traces of gold

City of the Most Holy Name of Jesus - name given to the city of Cebu by Legazpi

Distinguished and Ever Loyal Noble City - name given to Manila by King Philip II of Spain and later the same title bestowed to Iloilo City by Queen Regent Maria Cristina of Spain making it her favorite city thus the moniker "Queen City of the South"

Capt. Juan de Salcedo - called as the "Hernando Cortes of the Philippines"

Residencia - an investigation of a government official at the end of his term of office to find out how he behaved while in power during the Spanish colonial period

Polo - forced labor during the Spanish regime
Polista - person who rendered forced labor
Falla - sum of money paid to exempt a person from forced labor

Local governments during the Spanish Period:

Alcaldia - province under the alcalde mayor
Pueblo - town under the gobernadorcillo or capitan
Ayuntamiento - city under the alcalde
Barangay - barrio or local community village under the Cabeza de Barangay

Msgr. Ignacio de Santibañez - first Archbishop of Manila
Boleta - a ticket representing the right of the holder to take part in the galleon trade
Obras Pias - funds donated by rich persons for pious or charitable purposes

Capt. Alejandro Malaspina - conducted the first Geodetic survey of the Philippines
Francisco Lacsamana - greatest Filipino hero during the Chinese revolts who crushed the Chinese rebels in Antipolo

Duplo - a poetical debate held by trained men and women on the ninth or last night of the mourning for the dead

Bellocos and Bellacas - participants in the duplo

Cariñosa, Surtido, Fandanggo and Jota - popular folk dances during the Spanish times

Fr. Geronimo Aguilar - first music teacher of the Filipinos
Fr. Blas de la Madre de Dios - wrote the first work on Philippine flora (flowers)
Banco Español Filipino  - first government bank in the Philippines

Fr. Pedro Pelaez - championed the rights of the Filipino priests

Baler, Quezon - last Spanish outpost to surrender to the Filipinos under Lieutenant Colonel Simon Tecson

El Nuevo Dia - famous provincial newspaper founded and edited by Sergio Osmeña in Cebu
Major Manuel Sityar - director of the Military Academy of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos, Bulacan

General Jose Paua - the only Chinese general in the Philippine Revolution
General Licerio Geronimo - leader of the Filipino troops which killed Gen. Henry C. Lawton in the Battle of San Mateo

Gen. Vicente  Lukban - leader of the Filipino troops which massacred the 3 officers and 43 soldiers of the American garrison in Balangiga, Samar
Gen. Gregorio del Pilar  - hero of Tirad Pass and was called Leonidas of the Philippines

Januario Galut - Filipino traitor who led the American soldier to a secret path in Tirad Pass which resulted to the death of General Gregorio del Pilar

Melecio Severino - first Filipino to be elected as provincial governor under the American Occupation

Frank W. Carpenter - first American civilian to become Governor of Mindanao and Sulu

Luke E. Wright - first Democratic governor - general of the Philippines

James F. Smith - first Catholic American governor-general of the Philippines
Gregorio Araneta - first Filipino to be named as head of an executive department under the American Occupation

Gen. Leonard Wood - first American governor of the Moro province

Benito Legarda and Pablo Ocampo - first Filipino Resident Commissioners to the US Congress in Washington D.C.

Governor General Francis Burton Harrison - Filipinized the government service by appointing Filipinos to government offices whenever vacancies occur

Jones Law of 1916 - sponsored by US Congressman William Atkinson Jones, it declared that Philippine independence shall be granted by the United States as soon as a stable government is established in the Philippines

Tomas Claudio - First Filipino hero to die in World War I in the battlefield of France under the American flag

Centro Escolar University - oldest university for women, founded by Librada Avelino in 1907
Silliman University  - first Protestant university located in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental and was founded by Dr. David S. Hibbard in 1901.

Dr. David P. Barrows - first Director of Education in the Philippines

Isabelo de los Reyes - founded the first labor union in the Philippines called Union Obrera Democratica Filipina

Act No. 1818 - law passed by the Philippine Assembly on April 30, 1908 which declared May 1st of each year as Labor Day

Msgr. P.L. Chapelle - first Apostolic delegate to the Philippines

Most Reverend Jeremiah J. Harty - first American Archbishop of Manila
Msgr. Bernardino Nozaleda - last Spanish Archbishop of Manila

Right Reverend Jorge Barlin - first Filipino priest to become bishop during the American regime

Tacloban, Leyte - first municipal government to be restored after the war

Paul V. McNutt - last United States High Commissioner and the first United States ambassador to the Philippines

Senator Salipada K. Pendatun - first Muslim Senator of the Philippines

Salih Ututalum - first Muslim Superintendent of Schools

Badu Dangwa - first Igorot Governor of Mountain Province

Bai Bagungan Inok of Buluan, Cotabato - first woman municipal mayor in the Philippines

Rufino Cardinal Santos - first Filipino Cardinal of the Catholic Church

Mrs. Emilia S. Cavan - organized the first recital of Filipino folk songs at the Manila Grand Opera House in 1919. Her book "Filipino Folk Songs" was the first published collection of our folk songs

Dr. Eliseo Pajaro - composed the symphony "Life of Lam-ang" based on the Ilocano epic poem

Lt. Col. Antonio Buenaventura - conductor of the PC Band who popularized the Muslim folk songs in his composition "Mindanao Orchids"

Dr. Paulino J. Garcia - first Chairman of the National Science and Development Board

Photo Sources: 

Dabawenyong Lumad - 

Manila Nostalgia -

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