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Friday, May 13, 2016

Presidency and Vice-Presidency By The Numbers: Rodrigo Roa Duterte and Maria Leonor Gerona Robredo

Here's are the things you need to know about our upcoming 16th President and 14th Vice-President of the Philippines.

President Rodrigo "Digong" Duterte

From the time Congress proclaims a candidate as the duly-elected president, the candidate becomes known as the President-elect.

The Constitution is clear and specific: the title of the chief executive is “President of the Philippines,” and takes his oath of office as such, although in certain cases involving formal diplomatic usage, “President of the Republic of the Philippines” is used for diplomatic documents. The honorific for the President of the Philippines is “His/Your Excellency,” but the proper form of address is “Mr. President.”

Duterte’s winning margin was at 38.6% as of May 13, 2016. He was the sixth to win by plurality in presidential history since the restoration of democracy, and under the 1987 Constitution.  The biggest first-term landslide was Magsaysay in 1953 (68.9%), followed by Quezon in 1935 (67.99%). The biggest second term landslide was Quezon in 1941 (81.78%) followed by Marcos in 1969 (61.5%).

Fifth Republic President                 Percentage of Votes Won

Fidel V. Ramos                                         23.58%
Joseph Ejercito Estrada                            39.86%
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo                        39.99%
Benigno S. Aquino III                              42.08%                  

Aside from being the oldest duly elected President in the history of the Philippines at age 71 and making the biggest leap from City Mayor to President, here are some more statistical facts about the Philippines' next President:

Rodrigo Roa Duterte is the first:

First (1st):

    - President from Mindanao and Davao del Sur. Luzon has produced the most number of presidents at 12: Emilio Aguinaldo (Cavite), Manuel L. Quezon (Tayabas), Jose P. Laurel (Batangas), Elpidio Quirino (Ilocos Sur), Ramon Magsaysay (Zambales), Diosdado Macapagal (Pampanga), Ferdinand Marcos (Ilocos Norte), Corazon C. Aquino (Tarlac), Fidel V. Ramos (Pangasinan), Joseph Ejercito Estrada (San Juan, Metro Manila), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Pampanga), and Benigno S. Aquino III (Tarlac). Visayas has produced three: Sergio Osmeña (Cebu), Manuel Roxas (Capiz), and Carlos P. Garcia (Bohol).
    - Agusanon to become Philippine President (her mother is from Agusan del Norte)
    - President born in Maasin, Leyte.
    - City Mayor to become the President. Davao has been a chartered city since 1936.
    - President to be elected in his 70s. He is 71 years old, the oldest to assume the Presidency.
    - President to be nationally elected without a previous national position. Emilio Aguinaldo was not popularly elected, as he was only elected by the Malolos Congress in September 1898.
    - City prosecutor (fiscal) to become President. He was Special Counsel for the City Prosecution Office of Davao City (1977 – 1979), Fourth Assistant City Prosecutor (1979 – 1981), Third Assistant City Prosecutor (1981 – 1983), and Second Assistant City Prosecutor (1983 – 1986). He was, however, the third fiscal elected to the presidency. Manuel L. Quezon served as Provincial Fiscal of Mindoro in 1903 and Provincial Fiscal of Tayabas in 1904. Sergio Osmeña was Provincial Fiscal of Cebu from 1904 to 1905.
    - President who previously served as a vice mayor (OIC in 1986 and elected in 2010).
    - President to have studied in San Beda College of Law. He obtained his Law degree in 1972.
    - President to have studied in the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts, Major in Political Science in 1968.
    - President to have his marriage annulled. He was married to Elizabeth Abellana Zimmerman from 1973 to 2001. His current partner is Cielito “Honeylet” Avanceña.
    - President from Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-LABAN).
    - Duterte and Robredo form the first geographically “balanced” (North-South or Luzon-Visayas/Mindanao) President and Vice President in the Fifth Republic, with Duterte, who is from Davao City, representing the South while Robredo, a native of Camarines Sur, represents the North. However, they ran on different party tickets. The last geographically balanced pair was the Nacionalista Party ticket of Ferdinand E. Marcos (Ilocos Norte) and Fernando Lopez (Iloilo) in 1965.
    - President who rides motorcycles.

Second (2nd):

    - Cebuano to become President: his father, Vicente G. Duterte, was a lawyer from Cebu, while his mother Soledad Roa was a teacher and activist from Agusan del Norte. The last time the Philippines had a Cebuano President was 70 years ago, when Osmeña’s term ended in 1946.  He had assumed presidency in 1944 when he succeeded to the presidency following Quezon’s death from tuberculosis.
    - Non-resident of Metro Manila to be President. The first was Emilio Aguinaldo, who never resided in Provincia de Manila (Metro Manila area), having been occupied by the Americans since the early days of the American Colonial Period in 1898. All the others presidents actually lived in Metro Manila.

If he is inaugurated in the Ceremonial Hall:

    - President to be inaugurated in the Ceremonial Hall. The first was Ferdinand E. Marcos in 1986, before he fled to the United States.

Third (3rd):

    - Mayor to be elected President. Emilio Aguinaldo was the first, as capitan municipal of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit, Cavite) in 1896, and the second was Joseph Ejercito Estrada, who was Mayor of San Juan from 1969 to 1986. Duterte was mayor of Davao City from 1986 to 1998, from 2001 to 2010, and from 2013 to 2016.

Fourth (4th):

    - President to have a March birthday (Mar. 28). The other three were Laurel (Mar. 9), Ramos (Mar. 18), and Aguinaldo (Mar. 22). Two presidents were born in January: Roxas (Jan. 1) and C. Aquino (Jan. 25); one in February: B. Aquino (Feb. 8); two in April: Arroyo (Apr. 5) and Estrada (Apr. 19); two in August: Quezon (Aug. 19) and Magsaysay (Aug. 31); three in September: Osmeña (Sep. 9), Marcos (Sep. 11), and Macapagal (Sep. 28); two in November: Garcia (Nov. 4) and Quirino (Nov. 16).
    - President to have children in government positions while he is the President. Inday Sara Duterte, the presidential daughter, was reelected as Mayor of Davao for 2016 to 2019. The first president to have children in a government post was Ferdinand E. Marcos, who had Ferdinand Marcos Jr. as the governor of Ilocos Norte from 1983 to 1986 under his presidency. At the same time, Marcos’ wife, Imelda Marcos, was also governor of Metro Manila from 1975 to 1986. Joseph Ejercito Estrada had his son  Jinggoy Estrada as Mayor of San Juan from 1998- 2001. Gloria Macapagal – Arroyo had his son Juan Miguel “Mikey” Arroyo as Representative of the 2nd District of Pampanga from 2004 – 2010 and Vice Governor of Pampanga from 2001- 2004.
    - Single President upon entering office. The other single Presidents were: Elpidio Quirino, Corazon Aquino and Benigno S. Aquino III.

Fifth (5th):

    - President to enroll in the Ateneo school system. Other presidents who studied in the Ateneo were: Ramos (Master in Business Administration, 1980), Estrada (Ateneo de Manila High School, attended until 1953), Macapagal- Arroyo (Master of Arts in Economics, 1978), and Aquino III (Bachelor of Arts in Economics, 1981). Duterte attended the Ateneo de Davao University High School.

Sixth (6th):

    - President of the Fifth Republic. Aguinaldo was the lone President of the First Republic; Quezon was the first President of the Commonwealth and Roxas was the last; Laurel was lone President of the Second Republic; Roxas was the first President of the Third Republic and Marcos, the last; Marcos was the first President of the Fourth Republic and Corazon Aquino, briefly served under the Fourth Republic but proclaimed a revolutionary government. The Fifth Republic came into being with the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, and Corazon Aquino, Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, and Aquino III have been presidents of the Fifth Republic.
    - The previous republics are the First (Malolos, 1899-1901); Second (The Japanese Occupation, 1943- 1945); the Third (from independence in 1946 to 1972); the Fourth (the “New Republic” proclaimed in 1981).
    - President to be elected by plurality. Chronologically, the first was Garcia in 1957 with 41.3%. The rest were Ramos with 23.58% (the lowest plurality ever) in 1992; Estrada, 39.86% in 1998; Arroyo, 39.99% in 2004; and B. Aquino, 42.08% in 2010.
    - President to take his oath of office on 30th of June. Other Presidents include Ferdinand E. Marcos (1981), Fidel V. Ramos (1992), Joseph Ejercito Estrada (1998), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2004) and Benigno S. Aquino III (2010).
    - He received almost 16 million votes (38.6%); his winning margin was over 6 million (15.2%).
    - President who does not smoke. The other non-smoking Presidents were: Sergio Osmeña, Elpidio Quirino, Ramon Magsaysay, Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino. Presidents Manuel L. Quezon, Manuel Roxas, Carlos P. Garcia, Joseph Estrada and Benigno S. Aquino were public smokers while Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo, Jose P. Laurel, Fidel V. Ramos, Diosdado Macapagal and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo were occasional smokers.

Seventh (7th):

    - President whose father served in a Philippine government post. His father Vicente Duterte was Mayor of Danao in Cebu (1946), Governor of Davao (1958-1969), and was Cabinet Secretary for General Services for President Ferdinand E. Marcos (1967). Other presidents who have had fathers in Philippine government posts were: Jose P. Laurel (father: Sotero Laurel, Malolos Congress, 1898); Ferdinand Marcos (father: Mariano Marcos, Congressman, 1925-1931); Corazon Aquino (father: Jose Cojuangco, Congressman, 1934-1946); Fidel Ramos (father: Narciso Ramos, Assemblyman later Congressman, 1934-1946, and Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 1965-1968), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (father: Diosdado Macapagal, Congressman, 1949-1957; Vice President, 1957-1961; President, 1961-1965); Benigno Aquino III (father: Benigno Aquino Jr., Special Assistant to President Ramon Magsaysay, 1954; Special Assistant to President Carlos P. Garcia, 1957; Special Assistant to President Diosdado Macapagal, 1965; Mayor of Concepcion, Tarlac, 1955-1959; Vice Governor of Tarlac, 1959-1961; Governor of Tarlac, 1961-1967; Senator, 1967-1972).

Eighth (8th):

    - President to be elected in a six-year term in accordance with the constitutions that empowered them. The other presidents are Manuel L. Quezon (November 15, 1935 – 1941), Corazon Aquino (February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992), Fidel V. Ramos (June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (June 30, 2004 – June 30, 2010), and Benigno S. Aquino III (June 30, 2010 to June 30, 2016). The presidents who were elected in a six-year term but did not get to finish them, were Ferdinand E. Marcos, who under the amended 1973 Constitution in 1981 would have served until 1987 but shortened his term to run in 1986 and was ousted in 1986 by the EDSA People Power Revolution, and Joseph Ejercito Estrada who, under the 1987 Constitution, would have served until 2004, when he stepped down under pressures from EDSA II.

Ninth (9th):

    - Lawyer president in history and the first lawyer president in the Fifth Republic. Other lawyer presidents include Manuel L . Quezon, who passed the Philippine Bar Exam in 1903, Jose P. Laurel in 1915, Sergio Osmeña in 1903, Manuel Roxas in 1913, Elpidio Quirino in 1915, Carlos P. Garcia in 1923, Diosdado Macapagal in 1936, and Ferdinand Marcos in 1939. Duterte passed the Bar in 1972.

Tenth (10th):

    - To be proclaimed President-elect by the Legislature.
    - Congressman to become President. The other presidents who served as Representatives in the Lower House were: Manuel L. Quezon (1907-1909), Osmeña (1907-1922), Roxas (1922-1934), Quirino (1919-1922), Magsaysay (1946-1950), Garcia (1925-1931), Macapagal (1949-1957), Marcos (1949-1959), and B. Aquino III (1998-2007). Arroyo is the only President to serve as Representative in the Lower House after her presidency (2010-2016).
    - President who was inaugurated into office without having been Vice President first. Aguinaldo was first and only President of the First Republic, Quezon was first President of the Commonwealth, Laurel was the first and only President of the Second Republic, Roxas was first president of the Third Republic, Magsaysay was Secretary of National Defense before becoming president, C. Aquino was a Housewife , F. Ramos was Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, and B. Aquino III was a Senator.

Vice President Maria Leonor “Leni” Robredo

Maria Leonor “Leni” Robredo is the fourteenth vice president of the Philippines. The vice-presidency was constitutionally established under the 1935 Constitution, and the line of vice-presidents begins with Sergio Osmena, elected to the position in 1935 and again in 1941. The vice-presidency was abolished under the 2nd Republic and during martial law, and then formally restored in the 4th and 5th Republics.

The list of vice-presidents is therefore 14: Sergio Osmeña, Elpidio Quirino, Fernando Lopez, Carlos P. Garcia, Diosdado Macapagal, Emmanuel Pelaez, Fernando Lopez, Salvador H. Laurel, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Teofisto Guingona Jr., Manuel de Castro Jr., Jejomar Binay, and Leni Robredo. Lopez was the third and seventh vice-president because he was elected to the position under two different administrations (in 1949 and 1965 and again in 1969).

Here are some more statistical facts about the Philippines' next Vice President:

Leni Gerona Robredo is the first:

First (1st):

    - Vice President to hail from the Bicol Region (Camarines Sur).
    - Vice President to have studied in the University of Nueva Caceres College of Law. She obtained her Law Degree in 1992.

Second (2nd):

    - Widow who was elected as Vice President. Elpidio Quirino was the first widower to be elected in the post.
    - Woman vice president. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was the first, under the Estrada presidency from 1998 to 2001.
    - Vice President who held both Degrees in Law and Economics. Leni Robredo finished her Economics Degree from the University of the Philippines in 1986 and obtained her Law Degree from the University of Nueva Caceres in 1992. The first Vice President who was both lawyer and economist was Diosdado Macapagal who finished his Law Degree (1936), Master of Laws (1941), Doctor of Civil Laws (1947) and his Doctorate in Economics (1957) from the University of Santo Tomas.
    - Robredo won by the second narrowest margin of victory ever recorded for a national post in Philippine electoral history, beating Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos Jr. by 0.5% or around 200,000 votes (based on the partial and unofficial count of PPCRV). The slimmest margin of victory ever recorded was during the 1965 vice presidential elections, when Nacionalista candidate Fernando Lopez won against Liberal ticket Gerardo “Gerry” Roxas by 0.4% or less than 27,000 votes.

Third (3rd):

    - Vice President to obtain an economics degree. Leni Robredo finished her Economics Degree from the University of the Philippines in 1986. The other Vice Presidents who held a Degree in Economics were:  Diosdado Macapagal who finished his doctorate of economics from the University of Santo Tomas in 1957. And his daughter, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo who obtained her economics degree from the  Assumption College (1968); Masters of Arts in Economics from the  Ateneo de Manila University (1978) and her Doctorate in Economics from the University of the Philippines (1985).
    - Vice President to be nationally elected without a previous national position prior to the vice presidency, Robredo was elected Representative of the 3rd District of Camarines Sur (2013- 2016), Binay was Mayor of Makati City (2007 – 2010), and Macapagal was Representative of the First District of Pampanga (1949-1957).

Fourth (4th):

    - Vice President who was born in the month of April. Leni Robredo was born on April 23, 1965. The other Vice Presidents who were born in the month of April were: Fernando Lopez (April 13, 1904), Joseph Estrada (April 19, 1937), and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (April 5, 1947).
    - Youngest Vice President in Philippine history. The youngest person to be elected in the Vice Presidency was Fernando Lopez at the age of 45 in 1949. He was followed by Emmanuel Pelaez (46), Diosdado Macapagal (47), and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and Leni Robredo at the age of 51. The oldest to have been Vice President was Teofisto Guingona Jr., when he was appointed to the Vice Presidency in 2001 at the age of 72.

Fifth (5th):

    - Vice President who was not the running mate of an elected President. The first was Diosdado Macapagal, the Liberal Vice President of Nacionalista President Carlos P. Garcia back in 1957. The other pairs were Fidel V. Ramos (Lakas-NUCD) and Joseph Ejercito Estrada (NPC), Estrada (PMP) and Arroyo (Lakas-NUCD), and Benigno S. Aquino III (LP) and Jejomar Binay (PDP-Laban)
    - Vice President from the Liberal Party. The other Liberal Party members who have won the Vice Presidency were: Elpidio Quirino (1946), Fernando Lopez (1949), Diosdado Macapagal (1957) and Emmanuel Pelaez (1961).
    - Vice President elected who was not the running mate of the elected President. The other Vice Presidents elected who were not the running mates of the President-elect were: Diosdado Macapagal, Joseph Estrada, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and Jejomar Binay.

Sixth (6th):

    - Vice President who served previously as member of the House of Representatives. Other vice presidents were: Osmeña (Representative of the 2nd District of Cebu, 1907 – 1922), Quirino (Representative of the 1st District of Ilocos, 1919 – 1922), Garcia (Representative of the third district of Bohol, 1925-1931), Macapagal (Representative of the 1st District of Pampanga, 1949 -1957), and Pelaez (Representative of Misamis Oriental, 1949 – 1953). Robredo was elected Representative of the 3rd District of Camarines Sur from 2013  to 2016.

Seventh (7th):

    - Vice president who graduated from the University of the Philippines System. Other vice presidents from the UP were: Quirino (Bachelor of Laws, 1915), Macapagal (Associate in Arts,1933), Pelaez (Associate in Arts, 1933). Laurel (Bachelor of Laws, 1952), Macapagal-Arroyo (Doctorate in Economics, 1985), Binay (Bachelor of Laws, 1967). Robredo graduated from the University of the Philippines Diliman in 1986 with a Bachelor’s degree in Economics.
    Vice President to be elected to a six-year term. The other Vice Presidents were: Sergio Osmeña, Salvador Laurel, Joseph Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Manuel de Castro Jr. and Jejomar Binay.

Eighth (8th):

    - Vice President to win by plurality. Chronologically, the first was Diosdado Macapagal (46.6% in the 1957 Elections), followed by Pelaez with 38% in 1961, Lopez with 48.1% in 1965, Estrada with 33% in 1992, Macapagal-Arroyo with 50% in 1998, de Castro with 49.8% in 2004, and Binay with 41.7% in 2010.
    Eight months after her declaration of candidacy, Leni Robredo will be inaugurated as the 14th Vice President of the Philippines on June 30, 2016.

Ninth (9th):

    - Lawyer vice president in history and the fourth lawyer vice president in the Fifth Republic. Other lawyer vice presidents were: Sergio Osmeña (University of Santo Tomas 1903),  Elpidio Quirino (University of the Philippines, 1915), Fernando Lopez (University of Santo Tomas, 1925), Carlos P. Garcia (Philippine Law School, 1923), Diosdado Macapagal (University of Santo Tomas, 1936), Emmanuel Pelaez (University of Manila, 1938), Salvador Laurel (University of the Philippines, 1952), Teofisto Guingona Jr. (Ateneo de Manila University, 1953), Jejomar Binay (University of the Philippines, 1967. Robredo obtained her law degree from the University of Nueva Caceres in 1992.

    - Vice President who was born in Luzon. The other Vice Presidents from Luzon were: Elpidio Quirino (Ilocos Sur), Diosdado Macapagal (Pampanga), Salvador Laurel (Manila), Joseph Estrada (Manila), Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Manila), Teofisto Guingona (Rizal), Manuel de Castro (Oriental Mindoro) and Jejomar Binay (Manila).

Tenth (10th):

    Vice President to be proclaimed Vice President-elect by the legislature: the first was Sergio Osmeña, followed by Elpidio Quirino, Fernando Lopez, Carlos P. Garcia, Diosdado Macapagal, Joseph Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Manuel de Castro Jr. and Jejomar Binay.

Information Taken From:

Philippine Presidential Museum and Library -

Photo Source:

Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines Facebook Page -

Malacañan Palace Facebook Page

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