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Saturday, May 14, 2016

Philippine Presidential Inaugurations Quick Facts

On June 30, 2016 is the 16th Presidential Inauguration and Oath Taking of President Rodrigo Roa Duterte as well as the 14th Vice-Presidential Inauguration and Oath Taking of Vice-President Maria Leonor Gerona Robredo.

Here are some quick facts about Philippine Presidential Inauguration:


   * This is the first time a president-elect and vice president-elect will be sworn into office separately.
   * There has been one inauguration held in front of the Rizal Monument: 1946, July. This was the Roxas inauguration; he re-took his oath as part of independence ceremonies.
   * Only one president delivered his inaugural address on a day other than the day of his swearing in: Osmeña delivered his inaugural address before the Cabinet on August 10, 1944; he was sworn in on August 1, 1944.
   * Only one president took his oath in Spanish: Emilio Aguinaldo in 1899.


   * Inaugurals held in Rizal Ceremonial Hall
         - Marcos in 1986 and Duterte in 2016; three decades apart.
   * Inaugurals held in Malolos
         - Aguinaldo in 1899 and Estrada in 1998.
   * Inaugural addresses delivered at the Quirino the Grandstand, while the swearing-in took place elsewhere
         - Estrada in 1998, after being sworn in at Malolos, Arroyo in 2004, before being sworn in at Cebu City.
    * Times the president took the oath of office abroad: Quezon in November 1943, when the government-in-exile was extended by congressional resolution; Sergio Osmeña in August 1944, when he succeeded to the presidency of the government-in-exile.
    * Presidents who took their oath on two bibles
        - Magsaysay and Marcos took their oath on two bibles each, in 1953 and 1965. Magsaysay’s came from his mother’s and father’s families; Marcos’ were from his father and the other, a gift of his wife.


    * Inaugurals held in front of the Legislative Building (now National Museum)
        - 1935 (Quezon), 1943 (Laurel), 1946 (Roxas, in May)
    * Presidents who attended the inaugural of their duly-elected successor:
        - Osmeña (1946, the first handover of power from one administration to its elected successor); C. Aquino (1992, to signify the completion of the restoration of the democratic process); Ramos (1998 as part of the Centennial celebrations)
     Rodrigo Roa Duterte will be the third president to be sworn in by a Filipino associate justice of the Supreme Court.


    * Number of presidents who took their oaths either on June 30 or December 30
    * Times presidents have been sworn in at the Palace: 1948 (Quirino, after Roxas died), 1957 (Garcia, after Magsaysay died), 1986 (Marcos, after Snap Election), 2016 (Duterte)
    * Most number of inaugural addresses: Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981, 1986). Second-most is Quezon (1935, 1941, 1943); Quirino (1948 and 1949), Garcia (March and December, 1957), Arroyo (2001 and 2004) each delivered two inaugural addresses each.
    * Four vice presidents who succeeded to the presidency also took their oaths on dates different from the traditional inaugural date: Osmeña (August 1, 1944); Quirino (April 17, 1948), Garcia (March 18, 1957), Arroyo (January, 2001).
    * Most number of times a president has taken the oath of office: four, for Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981 and 1986);  followed by three, for Quezon (1935 in Manila, 1941 in Corregidor, 1943 in Washington, D.C., also before three different individuals); Quirino (1948 in Malacañan Palace, 1949 at the Independence Grandstand); Garcia (1957, twice: upon succession in March in Malacañan Palace and in December at the Independence Grandstand); Arroyo (2001 in Quezon City, 2004 in Cebu).


    * Republics (1899, 1943, 1946, 1981 and 1987) and 1 Commonwealth (1935)
    Presidents who did not attend the inaugural of their duly-elected successor
        The tradition of the outgoing chief executive departing from the inaugural of his or her successor after the ride together from Malacañan Palace to the inaugural venue, began with President Quirino and continued for the premartial law era; it was restored in 2010. Thus: Quirino (1953), Garcia (1961), Macapagal (1965), Arroyo (2010), B. Aquino III (2016: If the 2010 practice is observed)
    * Rodrigo Roa Duterte will be the fifth president not sworn in by a chief justice (Quezon in 1943, Osmeña in 1944, C. Aquino in 1986, B. Aquino III in 2010, and Rodrigo Roa Duterte in 2016.
    * Laurel, Marcos, Ramos, Estrada, B. Aquino III took their oath in Tagalog/Filipino.


    * Inaugurals held outside Manila
        - 1899 Aguinaldo (Malolos); 1941 Quezon (Corregidor); 1986 C. Aquino (San Juan), 1998 Estrada (Malolos), 2001 Arroyo (EDSA Shrine), 2004 Arroyo (Cebu)
    * Times a Chief Justice has not administered oath of office
        - 1899 (Aguinaldo: oath administered by Speaker), 1943 (Quezon, administered by U.S. Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter), 1944 (administered by U.S. Associate Justice Hugo Jackson) 1986 (administered by Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee), 2010 (administered by Associate Justice Conchita Carpio-Morales), 2016 (administered by Associate Justice Bienvenido Reyes)
    * Presidents inaugurated on December 30
        - Six presidents (Quezon (1941), Quirino (1949), Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965 and 1969) had inaugurals on December 30. Starting with Quezon’s second inaugural in 1941 until Marcos’ second inaugural in 1969 (with the exception of the special election called in 1946), presidents were inaugurated on Rizal Day, December 30. President Marcos in 1981 began the practice of inaugurals on June 30.
    * Rodrigo Roa Duterte will be the sixth president to take his oath of office on June 30: Marcos, Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, B. Aquino III being the others.


    * The number of presidents-elect who fetched their predecessors from Malacañan Palace for the drive to the inaugural venue (Roxas and Osmeña in 1946; Magsaysay and Quirino in 1953; Macapagal and Garcia in 1961; Marcos and Macapagal in 1965; Ramos and C. Aquino in 1992; Estrada and Ramos in 1998; B. Aquino III and Arroyo in 2010).


    * Shortest inaugural address at a regular inaugural
        - Eight (8) minutes is the shortest delivery length of an inaugural address at a regular inaugural. This was delivered by President Ramon Magsaysay in 1953. The addresses of Quirino and Garcia upon the death of their predecessors, and C. Aquino’s address in 1986 were very brief but not regular inaugurals.
    * Presidents elected to a six-year term
        - Quezon, C. Aquino, Marcos (1981), Estrada, Arroyo, Ramos, B. Aquino III, Duterte
    * Decades since first ceremonial climbing of the stars at Malacañan Palace
        - It has been 81 years, to be exact, since the first ceremonial climbing of the stairs at Malacañan Palace–signifying that the chief executive was the freely-elected head of the Filipino people, one pledged to govern them with justice in contrast to the appointed colonial governors who formerly inhabited the Palace.
    * Number who did not swear on a bible
        - Aguinaldo (1899), Quezon (1935, 1941, 1943), Laurel (1943), Osmeña (1944), Roxas (May and July, 1946), Quirino [1949: But in the swearing-in after their predecessors died, Quirino (April 1948) and Garcia (March 1957) did not use a bible, either], and Marcos (1986).


    * Inaugurals at Quirino Grandstand (formerly known as Independence Grandstand)
       - 1949 (Quirino), 1953 (Magsaysay), 1957 (Garcia), 1961 (Macapagal) , 1965, 1969, 1981 (Marcos), 1992 (Ramos), 2010 (B. Aquino III)
    * Number of Presidents who swore on a bible
        - Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981 but not in 1986), C. Aquino (1986), Ramos (1992), Estrada (1998), Arroyo (2001, 2004), B. Aquino III (2010: the same bible used by his mother in 1986).


    * Rodrigo Roa Durterte is the tenth to have been proclaimed president-elect by the legislature: the first was Manuel L. Quezon, followed by Manuel Roxas, Ramon Magsaysay, Diosdado Macapagal, Ferdinand E. Marcos, Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Benigno S. Aquino III. While Congress certified the election of Elpidio Quirino and Carlos P. Garcia, they had succeeded into office previously, and were already serving as president when elected to a full term: thus, were not referred to as presidents-elect. Aguinaldo and Laurel were not elected president in a national election, they were made president by a vote of the national assembly and thus never president-elect. Corazon Aquino assumed the presidency by means of the People Power Revolution and was not proclaimed by the Batasan Pambansa.
    * Rodrigo Roa Duterte, if he takes his oath on a bible, will be the tenth president to swear on a bible. Magsaysay was the first to take his oath on a bible: Garcia, Macapagal, Marcos, C. Aquino, Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, B. Aquino III, followed suit. Aguinaldo, Quezon, Laurel, Osmeña, Roxas and Quirino (belonging to generations closer to the revolutionary era, did not take their oaths on a bible). Magsaysay and Marcos took their oath on two bibles each in 1953 and 1965.
    * Presidents who took their oath of office in English: Quezon, Osmeña, Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal, Aquino, and Arroyo took their oath in English. Rodrigo Roa Duterte is also expected to take his oath in English.


    * Number of Presidents who were sworn in by a Chief of Justice
         - Quezon (1935 and 1941), Laurel (1943), Roxas (1946, May and July), Quirino (1948 and 1949), Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957 March and December), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981 and 1986), Ramos (1992), Estrada (1998), Arroyo (2001 and 2004)
    * Number of Presidents inaugurated in Manila
        - Quezon (1935), Laurel (1943), Roxas (1946), Quirino (1949), Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965), etc.), Ramos (1992), Aquino (2010), Duterte (2016)


    * Time of day the President-elect takes his oath as President
        - The President-elect takes his oath as President at 12:00 p.m. on the 30th day of June. Ideally, as per tradition, the incumbent would already be at home by the time the oath is taken to mark his reverting to being an ordinary citizen.
    * Presidents who undertook the ritual climbing of the stairs of Malacañan Palace: Quezon, Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal, Marcos, Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, B. Aquino III. Rodrigo Roa Duterte is also expected to undertake this ritual. Four did not: Aguinaldo (no such ritual, and his inaugural was not in Manila) Laurel (to avoid comparisons to the Commonwealth), Osmeña (succeeded into office overseas), C. Aquino (assumed office under revolutionary circumstances).


    * Administrations have followed the model of inaugural established in 1935. Exceptions would be Aguinaldo (before the model was introduced).
    * Robredo is 14th Vice President because neither Aguinaldo nor Laurel had a vice presidency under their constitution.


    * The final official act of the 15th Congress was when the Senate President read the proclamation announcing the results of the 2010 elections, a practice last previously undertaken in 1969.


    * Duterte is 16th president because we count the administrations as starting with Aguinaldo in 1899 and including the Commonwealth and the 2nd Republic.


    * Number of times a Chief Justice has administered the presidential oath of office
        1935, 1941, 1943, 1946 (twice, in May and July), 1948, 1949, 1953, 1957 (twice, March and December), 1961, 1965, 1981, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2004

To view the photos of the past Philippine Presidential Inaugurations, check out the link below:

Information Taken From:

Philippine Presidential Museum and Library -

Photo Source:

The Quadrate Wordpress Blog - 

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